Facts and figures about cashCharts, tables and informationabout cashDeutsche BundesbankLast updated: August 2021

Facts and figures about cashBanknote issuance in the Eurosystem2Volume of banknotes issued by theEurosystemThe amount of cash issued is rising continuously: over the last ten years thevolume of banknotes in circulation has grown by an average of approxi mately 6% per year. The threshold of over 1 trillion was already exceededat the end of 2014; at present, over 1.4 trillion worth of banknotes are incirculation. Looking at the Eurosystem as a whole, the Bundesbank is by farthe largest issuer of cash. In terms of value, more than half of the bank notes in circulation come from the vaults of the German central bank.The public has great trust in cash. This was especially evident during thecoronavirus pandemic. At the beginning of the pandemic in March 2020,there was an exceptionally strong increase in withdrawals of banknotes.This makes it clear that cash not only plays an important role in everydayand business life but is also appreciated as a stable store of value. The Bundesbank is therefore committed to retaining cash so that the generalpublic can continue to use their preferred means of payment and store ofvalue.

Facts and figures about cashBanknote issuance in the Eurosystem3Banknotes in circulation issued by the EurosystemLeft-hand scaleAnnual growth rate% 70 65BundesbankEurosystemEurosystem excl. Bundesbank 60 55 bn1,500Right-hand scaleCumulatednet issuance1,4001,3001,200 501,100 451,000Eurosystem 40900 35800 30700 25600 20500Bundesbank 15400 10300 52000100– 5020022003Deutsche 20142015201620172018201920202021

Facts and figures about cashBanknote issuance in the Eurosystem4Volume of banknotes issued by the EurosystemYear-end figuresIssued volume in bnAnnual growth .1 %5.4 %3.2 %391.8496.95.8 %6.8 %5.1 %912.6427.5485.12.7 %9.1 %–2.4 %2013956.2461.5494.74.8 %8.0 %2.0 %20141,016.5508.4508.16.3 %10.1 %2.7 %20151,083.4552.6530.86.6 %8.7 %4.5 %20161,126.2592.2534.04.0 %7.2 %0.6 %20171,170.7634.7536.04.0 %7.2 %0.4 %20181,231.1690.7540.55.2 %8.8 %0.8 %20191,292.7749.5543.25.0 %8.5 %0.5 %20201,434.5821.0613.511.0 %9.5 %12.9 %Deutsche BundesbankEurosystem

Facts and figures about cashBanknote issuance per denomination5Banknotes in circulation issued bythe Eurosystem per denominationTowards the end of the year, there is significantly more demand for cashthan during the rest of the year. This is because, in the run-up to Christ mas, private consumption rises considerably, with most purchases madein cash. In terms of value, the most frequently used banknote in daily lifeis the “medium-sized” 50 note.Alongside use in daily life, the 50 note is also a highly popular way ofstoring cash. Those who hoard large amounts increasingly use 100 and 200 notes. This is associated, amongst other things, with the decision inApril 2019 to stop issuing the 500 banknote, which has resulted in thedeclining importance of this note and its growing displacement by thenext smaller denominations. This became clear through considerablystronger growth in the net issuance of 200 banknotes, in particular, witharound 650 million 200 notes worth over 130 billion already in circula tion at the end of 2020, while this figure still stood at roughly 50 billionuntil April 2019.

Facts and figures about cashBanknote issuance per denomination6Banknotes in circulation issued by the Eurosystem bn, monthly650600550 500 200 100 50 20 10 55004504003503002502001501005002002 0304Deutsche Bundesbank05060708091011121314151617181920

Facts and figures about cashBanknote issuance per denomination7Banknotes in circulation issued by the Eurosystem per denominationYear-end figures in bn 5 10 20 50 100 200 09.928.390.0636.2336.6130.6202.91,434.5Deutsche Bundesbank

Facts and figures about cashCoins in circulation8Coins in circulation in the EurosystemEach individual Member State in the Eurosystem issues its own euro coins.This is why each coin displays a national side as well as a common Euro pean side. Alongside the regular issue coins – ranging from one cent totwo euros – each country can issue its own collectors’ coins. The FederalMinistry of Finance is responsible for coin issuance in Germany. Some ofthe operational tasks have been transferred to the Bundesbank. In Ger many, the 5 coins with a coloured polymer ring are among the coinsproving to be very popular. These collectors’ coins constitute legal tenderonly in the respective issuing countries.Creditors in Germany are obliged to accept up to 50 coins or coins worthup to 200, provided this has not been explicitly ruled out previously.138 billion coins with a total value of over 30 billion had been issuedacross Europe by the end of 2020. In terms of quantity, the 1 cent coinleads the pack, with more than 37 billion issued. If the 2 cent and 5 centcoins are also included these represent almost two-thirds of the issuedcoins, but constitute less than 7% of the value of coins in circulation. Onthe other hand, 1 and 2 coins make up almost 70% of the value ofcoins in circulation.

Facts and figures about cashCoins in circulation9Net issuance of coins in the euro area per denominationAs at 31 December 2020bn35Number of coins302520151050 bnValue12840 2 1Deutsche Bundesbank50ct20ct10ct5ct2ct1ct

Facts and figures about cashCoins in circulation10Coins issued by the EurosystemYear-end figuresValue in bnIn bn 30.4138.9Deutsche Bundesbank

Facts and figures about cashIncidence of counterfeits in Germany11Incidence of counterfeits in GermanyCounterfeit prevention is another of the Bundesbank’s tasks. However, it isimpossible to fully prevent criminals from attempting to bring counterfeitnotes into circulation. Due to the high usage of genuine 50 banknotes ineveryday life, fake 50 notes are especially common in Germany.In 2020, the number of counterfeit 10 and 20 banknotes increased, inparticular. For the most part, these were easily identifiable counterfeits wi thout any security features, with the words “MovieMoney” printed on theobverse side or “Prop copy” on the reverse.Past losses arising from counterfeits are very low relative to the total volumeof cash in circulation. Our cash is still safe: attempts to circulate counterfeitmoney are made at checkout counters, which means it is rare for consu mers to be directly confronted with counterfeits. In order to maintain thehigh quality of banknotes, the Eurosystem has introduced the Europa se ries. The introduction of the new series was completed in May 2019, whenthe new 100 and 200 notes were first issued. One of the particular sa fety features of the new series is the emerald number, which is visible onthe obverse side of every banknote.The likelihood of coming into contact with counterfeit money is very re mote. On average, this equates to around just seven counterfeits for every10,000 inhabitants per year. However, if someone should ever receivecounterfeit money, they should report this to the police, as obtaining orpassing on counterfeit money can be a criminal offence.

Facts and figures about cashIncidence of counterfeits in Germany12Incidence of counterfeits in GermanyInthousands100Number of counterfeit euro banknotes in Germany 50 20 10 500 200 100 59080706050403020100Arithmetic total losses mn64202002 0304Deutsche Bundesbank05060708091011121314151617181920

Facts and figures about cashIncidence of counterfeits in Germany13Incidence of counterfeits in GermanyNumber of counterfeits per denominationArithmetic totallosses in mn 5 10 20 50 100 200 ,91024,0884,6158231,132Deutsche Bundesbank

Facts and figures about cashOutstanding DM cash14Outstanding DM banknotes andcoinsAlthough the Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender at the beginningof 2002, there are still large volumes of banknotes and coins in circu lation. These are only gradually finding their way back to theBundesbank.Anyone finding DM coins or banknotes today can exchange them in un limited amounts at all Bundesbank branches1 indefinitely and at a fixedrate. In addition, it is possible to exchange Deutsche Mark by post via theMainz Branch.2 There are no plans to discontinue this service in thefuture.Individuals can also visit a Bundesbank branch to exchange euro bankno tes into coins and vice versa. This service, like the exchange of DeutscheMarks, is provided free of charge.1 A full list of Bundesbank branches can be found on the Bundesbank’s website -offices-branches2 Further information on how to exchange DM banknotes and coins by post can be found -616928

Facts and figures about cashOutstanding DM cash15Outstanding DM banknotes and coins*In DM bn, year-end figures18DM coinsDM 0320042005* Including DM commemorative coins.Deutsche Bundesbank2006200720082009201020112012

Facts and figures about cashUse of banknotes16Use of banknotes issued by the BundesbankAlongside the everyday use of euros as a means of payment, the majorityof banknotes are not used for purchases but mainly as a store of value.In addition, the euro is a popular reserve currency abroad, much like theUS dollar today and the Deutsche Mark in the past. Safety and stabilityplay an important role here for those who hold cash. The euro’s standingoutside the euro area is thus not to be underestimated either.The Bundesbank also supplies part of the remaining euro area with bank notes via its branches. Particularly for credit institutions in neighbouringcountries, it makes sense to obtain cash from the Bundesbank branchesclose to the border. Aside from this, tourism is another essential compo nent of how cash is brought from one Eurosystem member country toanother.

Facts and figures about cashUse of banknotes17Use of banknotes issued by the BundesbankAs at 31 December 2020For transactionsinside GermanyOutside the euro area5%35%40%20%Inside the euro area (excl. Germany)Deutsche BundesbankFor hoardinginside Germany

Facts and figures about cashPayment behaviour18Payment behaviourThe Bundesbank conducts a representative survey about consumers’ pay ment behaviour at regular intervals. Cash is a very popular means of pay ment, both in terms of turnover and the number of payment transactions.Although a slow and steady decline in use over the years can be obser ved, there are still no signs that cash will be completely replaced by cash less payment instruments. Dominant among them is the girocard, alsoknown as bank or debit card.People in Germany have access to a vast array of payment instruments.The Bundesbank takes a neutral stance, not dictating to the public whichpayment procedures they should use. Instead, individuals should be ableto freely choose their preferred means of payment. Banknotes and coinsplay an integral role in the everyday life of many people; this is why theBundesbank continues to take a stand in the debate about keeping cash,decisively opposing any attempts to abolish it.

Facts and figures about cashPayment behaviour19Use of payment instruments in GermanyPayment behaviour in Germany 2011, 2014 and 2017 1)Breakdownby turnover in %Payment instrumentBreakdownby number of transactions201720142011201720142011Cash 318.415.313. transferCredit card5. debit2. scheme3. card1. card0. payment card0. via mobile less. using an unspecified payment 0Deutsche Bundesbank1)Payment methods which are not represented by numbers have not been included in the corresponding year.

Facts and figures about cashStore of value20Cash as a store of valueDespite a large number of cashless payment options and their growingshare in the payments basket in Germany, there is still strong demand forcash. This is mainly due to the fact that large shares of the cash issuedare used as a store of value.Of the roughly 268 billion in cash that, according to the Bundesbank’scalculations, was located in Germany in 2018, an estimated 200 billioncould be traced back to hoarding motives. Following on from this, theBundesbank commissioned a study on the whereabouts and usage of thecash hoarded by households. This revealed that, back then, individuals inGermany hoarded an average of 1,364 in the form of cash.There are a variety of motives for hoarding cash: for one, security and thefact that no special technology is needed play a key role, as does generalacceptance as a means of payment. This shows that many people appre ciate being able to fall back on cash at any time – including in emergen cies or crises.It can thus be concluded that, alongside its role as a means of payment,cash is also extremely popular as a store of value and continues to play avital role.

Facts and figures about cashStore of value21Distribution of private cash reserves in 2018* 5,0004,5004,0003,5003,0002,5002,0001,500Mean: 1,3641,000500Median: 2000P5 P10 P15 P20 P25 P30 P35 P40 P45 P50 P55 P60 P65 P70 P75 P80 P85 P90 P95* Shows mean and percentile values. For example, the 75th percentile (P75) indicates that 75% of respondents held a maximum amount of 500 in cash and 25% held more than that.Deutsche Bundesbank

Facts and figures about cash22This information is updated annually and can be accessed via theBundesbank’s website.Tasks Cash management Overview Cash management Facts andfigures about cashAll graphics and information contained in this publication are copyrightedby the Deutsche Bundesbank (2021). Not to be reprinted without permis sion. Reproduction is permitted only if the source is stated.In case of questions, please email the address below or use the Bundesbank’sonline contact form (available here).Deutsche BundesbankDirectorate General Cash ManagementWilhelm-Epstein-Straße 1460431 Frankfurt am [email protected].: 069 9566-0

135 billion coins with a total value of 30 billion have been issued across Europe to date. In terms of quantity, the 1 cent coin leads the pack, with almost 37 billion issued. If the 2 cent and 5 cent coins are also included, these represent almost two-thirds of