International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-6186Overcoming Cultural Untranslatability: With SpecialReference to Wikramasinghe’s ‘Gamperaliya’ and itsEnglish Translation, ‘Uprooted’ by Lakshmi de Silvaand Ranga WikramasingheGunathilaka D. D. I. M. B.1 and Ariyaratne W. M.21&2Department of Languages, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri LankaAbstract:-Translators encounter numerous issues in the processof translation. One of such issues is untranslatability, whichoccurs with the difficulty of finding appropriate target languageequivalents for the source language terms, phrases or concepts.According to J. C. Catford, there are two categories ofuntranslatability namely linguistic untranslatability (LU) andculturaluntranslatability(CU).To overcometheseuntranslatable scenarios, translators use several translationstrategies. However, overcoming CU is problematic than LU.The purpose of this study was to discuss how this issue of CU hasbeen overcome in the context of indigenous literature in SriLanka referring Wikramasinghe’s ‘Gamperaliya’ and its Englishtranslation, ‘Uprooted’. In this regard, the aforementioned noveland its translation were comparatively analyzed by using contentanalysis method. Theoretical reading materials related to theconcept of untranslatability and regarding different translationtechniques were also referred. In conclusion of this study, it wasinvestigated that the novel ‘Gamperaliya’ is rich in culturalaspects where both translators found some difficulties inpredisposing them for the target language audience. Toovercome CU, translators have used different strategiesindividually and in combination of them such as the methods ofParaphrase, Regular Borrowing, Sentence Embedded AnnotatedBorrowing, Converted Borrowing, Loan Blend, LiteralTranslation, Calque, Equivalence, and Compensation. Two noveltranslation techniques, which fabricated with the combination ofBorrowing and Equivalence, and Borrowing and LiteralTranslation have been invented and used. In addition to that, toovercome the CU in this context, they have even engaged inneologism and in utilizing the techniques of omission andaddition. However, it was determined that the translators werenot able to solve all scenarios of CU. Mistranslations andinconsistency of translated terminologies has negatively affectedthe understandability of the translation. This research proposedthat these facts should be considered to make appropriate editingto ‘Uprooted’ in the future.Keywords: Cultural Untranslatability, Indigenous Literature,Linguistic Untranslatability, Neologism, and TranslationMethodsAbbreviationsSL - Source LanguageTL - Target LanguageST - Source Textwww.rsisinternational.orgTT - Target TextCU - Cultural UntranslatabilityLU - Linguistic UntranslatabilityFN - FootnoteI. INTRODUCTIONhe word ‘translation’ implies to several meanings ofwhich the general meaning is the ‘conversion ofsomething from one form or medium into another’("Translation Definition of translation by Lexico", 2019). Inthe context of the field of Applied Linguistics, it implies to themeaning of rendering particular written information from onelanguage into another. According to the translation theorist,Peter Newmark, translation is the ‘rendering the meaning of atext into another language in the way that the author intendedthe text’ (1988).TThe fundamental purposes of translating information from onelanguage (Source Language (SL) to another (Target Language(TL)) are to overcome language barriers faced by people whodo not share the same language of the original (Source Text(ST)) and to expand knowledge with different nation.Therefore, ‘translators’ who are well-experienced and havinga sound knowledge in both SL and TL and of the subjectmatter of the ST are undertaking this process to fulfil theserequirements. However, there is some situation in which anytranslator faces issues in this process of translation. Thathappens mostly in situations of finding equivalents for the SLterminologies in the TL. This issue is proclaimed by J. C.Catford in the following perspective.For translation equivalence to occur, then, both SLand TL text must be relatable to the functionallyrelevant features of the situation. A decision, in anyparticular case, as to what is functionally relevant inthis sense must in our present state of knowledgeremain to some extent a matter of opinion. (Catford,1965)He stated that if there is no issue in finding equivalents in theTL, both SL and TL must share same linguistic and culturalPage 303

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-6186features and therefore, emphasized that such situations are asrare as each language have their own inherited features oradapted features with the development of the language.Situations in translating where there is no equivalent for anyparticular term or concept are defined as ‘Untranslatability’. Itis,an indisputable fact that differences betweenlanguages do not ‘mesh together’ in that uniqueconfigurations of grammar, vocabulary, andmetaphor, which one finds in each languageinevitably have some bearing on the types ofmeaning that can be comfortably expressed in thatlanguage. (Shuttleworth & Cowie, 2014)This has been further defined in the following manner byCatford as,Translation fails or untranslatability occurs when it isimpossible to build functionally relevant features ofthe situation into the contextual meaning of the TLtext. Broadly speaking, the cases where this happensfall into two categories. Those where the difficult islinguistic, and those where it is cultural. (Catford,1965)2.3.Further, Jean Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet in ‘AMethodology for Translation’ (1958), which carries out acomparative stylistic analysis of French and English, statedseven methods of translation to overcome LU and CU.Though it is based on the language pair of French andEnglish, it is applicable for any language pair of whichuntranslatability occurs. Accordingly, two translationstrategies were mainly identified namely direct and indirect oroblique translation methods. While borrowing, calque, andliteral translation belong to the category of direct translation,transposition, equivalence, modulation, and adaptation belongto indirect translation methods.1.As classified by Carford, there are two situations ofuntranslatability such as ‘Linguistics Untranslatability’ (LU)and ‘Cultural Untranslatability’ (CU). LU occurs when thelinguistic features of the ST cannot be substituted adequatelyin the TL. Cultural untranslatability refers to the translationdifficulties that originate from the gap between the SL cultureand the TL culture. This occurs specially in rendering culturalaspects of a language such as names of people, clothes, foods,and abstract cultural concepts and terms. It makes therendering of the ST more difficult in the TL. Further, heargues that ‘LU is due to the differences in the SL and the TL,whereas CU is due to the absence of the SL culture in the TLculture’ (Bassnett, 2002). This fact of language gap can bedefined as ‘metalinguistic lacuna’. According to Catford, CU,which can be mostly seen in literary translations, is moreproblematic. Therefore, this study mainly focused on thissituation of CU and how it can be overcome by translatorsfocusing on one of the indigenous novel in Sinhalese and itsEnglish translation.'metaphrase': 'word by word and line by line'translation, which corresponds to literal translation;www.rsisinternational.orgBorrowing: There are several sub-categories ofborrowings as follows, Regular Borrowing: SL word is transferreddirectly to TL by transliterating it. E. g. .d:d –gāthā (what proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet)Converted Borrowing / Double Borrowing:directly transliterating another form of the SLterm e. g. ksjka -Nivan(Sinhalese Term) ksර්jdK (Sanskrit Term) Nirvāna (proposedby Jayamal de Silva)Annotated Borrowing: A combination ofborrowing and annotation (proposed by Jayamalde Silva)1.Footnote (FN) at the end of the page or atthe end of the whole documente. g. lsrsm¿-kiripaḷuFN: Buchanania Latifolia [botanical term]2.Text Embedded A per the idea of Eugene Nida ‘solutions to translationproblems should be ethological and dependent on thetranslator’s acquisition of sufficient ‘cultural information’(2015). Moreover, taking the concept of untranslatability intodiscussion, some theorists suggested various methods oftranslation to reduce the untranslatability and specially theCU. One of such theorists is John Dryden who presented threetranslation methods into which all translation methods can bereduced in the preface to his translation of Ovid’s Epistles in1680.1.'paraphrase': 'translation with latitude, where theauthor is kept in view by the translator, so as never tobe lost, but his words are not so strictly followed ashis sense'; this involves changing whole phrases andmore or less corresponds to faithful or sense-forsense translation;'imitation': 'forsaking' both words and sense; thiscorresponds to Cowley's very free translation and ismore or less adaptation. (Munday, 2001, p. 25) 2.Sentence Embedded – e. g. nqoaOjxi ‘Buddha Vaṁsa’or the ‘Chronical ofBuddha’In Bracket – e. g. mdKavqlïn,, pāṇdukambala (seat of pale yellowstone)Loan Blend: A combination of both borrowingand literal translation. e.g. liS jf;ys - Kasīcloth (proposed by Charles F. Hockett)Calque: This is 'a special kind of borrowing' wherethe SL expression or structure is transferred in aliteral translation. (e. g. f;rejka –teruvan- triplePage 304

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-61863.gem) Vinay and Darbelnet note that both borrowingsand calques often become fully integrated into theTL, although sometimes with some semantic change,which can turn them into false friends.Literal translation: This is 'word-for-word'translation, which Vinay and Darbelnet describe asbeing most common between languages of the samefamily and culture (e. g. tlÕis;a – ekangasit- peaceof mind). ‘Literal translation is the authorprescription for good translation: literalness shouldonly be sacrificed because of structural andmetalinguistic requirements and only after checkingthat the meaning is fully preserved. But, say Vinayand Darbelnet the translator may judge literaltranslation to be 'unacceptable' because a different meaning;has no meaning;is impossible for structural reasons;does not have a corresponding expressionwithin the metalinguistic experience of theTL;corresponds to something at a different levelof language.In those cases, where literal translation is notpossible, Vinay and Darbelnet say that the strategy ofoblique translation must be used’Transposition: This is a change of one part of speechfor another without changing the sense. Vinay andDarbelnet see transposition as 'probably the mostcommon structural change undertaken by translators'.Modulation: This changes the semantics and point ofview of the SL.Equivalence: Vinay and Darbelnet use this term torefer to cases where languages describe the samesituation by different stylistic or structural means.Equivalence is particularly useful in translatingidioms and proverbs.Adaptation: This involves changing the culturalreference when a situation in the source culture doesnot exist in the target culture. (Munday, 2001)II. METHODOLOGYThe present study was basically a corpus based qualitativeresearch in which content analysis technique was used. Thisresearch was mainly conducted by using both primary andsecondary data. As for the primary data, the Sinhalese novel‘Gamperaliya’ by the Sri Lankan novelist MartinWickramasinghe and its English translation ‘Uprooted’, byLakshmi de Silva and Ranga Wikramasinghe were analyzedin order to find solutions for the subjected research problem.This selected original Sinhalese novel is the first of threenovels known as the Koggala Trilogy of which ‘Kaliyugaya’and ‘Yuganthaya’ are the other two novels. Gamperaliya waspublished in 1944 discussing the social changes in Sri Lankain the early part of the 20th century, which is the periodaround 30 years earlier when the country was under colonialwww.rsisinternational.orgrule. The 51st edition of the original novel and the 5th editionof the translation were analyzed. As for the secondary data, ebooks, previous research papers, and lecture notes related tothe main concept of this study and printed as well as onlinedictionaries were referred. In order to analyze the collecteddata, translation methods proposed by different translationtheorists such as J.C. Carford, Jean-Paul Vinay, JeanDarbelnet and John Dryden were studied and used.III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe collected primary data were analyzed by using the contentanalysis method under the following sub-sections in order toemphasize the various translation methods used by the twotranslators of ‘Uprooted’ to overcome the CulturalUntranslatability and further, to define whether they havesuccessfully conveyed them in the TL. The following subcategories can be defined as the most important situationswhere CU occurred.1.Title of the NovelTranslators should give an especial focus on how to translatethe title as it is important for the TL readers to get an ideaabout the text. This should be considered especially intranslating titles of literary texts. The importane of accuratelyconverting the title is seen as,‘Literal translations of titles will often fail to grab theprospective audience for the book. Sometimes acomplete change is required to make the booksaleable in English-speaking countries, and difficultdecisions may have to be made. Ultimately, the titleis a commercial decision on which the publisher willhave the final say, but creating a bland new title inorder to avoid alienating readers is not good practice.So literal translations are often a dreadful mistakewhen it comes to titles, and editors and translatorsmust be prepared to be creative.’ (Paul, 2009)The author’s intention of entitling the novel as ‘Gamperaliya’(.ïfmr sh) in this novel was to symbolize the whole story ofthe novel through the title. He proclaimed the social changestaken placed in the early part of the 20 th century or the periodaround 30 years earlier the colonial rule in Sri Lanka.‘Gamperaliya’ vividly exemplifies the changing village or thegradual transformation of the traditional village culture tourban culture in that particular period with the influence ofColonial culture and the Western education system. Thetranslators have translated the title as ‘Uprooted’ giving themeanings of ‘to pull out by or as if by the root’, ‘to removeviolently or tear away from a native place or environment’, ‘todestroy or eradicate as if by pulling out roots’, or ‘to displace,as from a home or country; tear away, as from customs or away of life’ ("", 2019). Though the Englishtitle ‘Uprooted’ does not give the exact literal translation ofthe Sinhalese title, the translators used the translation methodof Equivalent and translated it in the way of giving theintended meaning.Page 305

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-61862.Terms related to Religions, Beliefs, and TraditionsSri Lanka is a country which inherits a long history and a richculture. It is a culture that includes multiple religions,traditions, and beliefs. An especial fact that visualizes in thisscenario is the specific language usage that owns in thesespecific fields. Therefore, CU would happen if that content ofSL does not exist in the TL. In this context, numeroussituations can be seen in which CU has taken placed. Thesesituations show how culture, tradition, codes of conducts,religious beliefs, and fictitious beliefs are highly appreciatedby the society involved in this novel and how difficult it is toconvey them into another language, which owns completely acontrast cultural background. Following examples clearlyproclaims how the two translators have overcome thosesituations. zWkag ljqo ysr fokafka@Z-Unta kavuda hira denne ?(p. 40, 45)‘Who will give anyone in marriage to the likes ofsuch people?’ (p. 30)‘How can you even think that we would consider amarriage proposal from such people?’ (p. 35)In this context, the translators have not found a directtranslation for the cultural term ‘ysr’ -hira and therefore,followed the method of Paraphrase in which the translatorshave amplified the Sinhalese term in English preserving thesense of the word. However, as shown in the above examplethey have explained the particular term in two differentwordings in two situations.Usage of Sentence Embedded Annotated Borrowing can beseen profusely throughout this translation such as thefollowing situations in which the CU term has beentransliterated in TL letters and an explanation in TL isfollowed by it. hka;r-uka;% . relï (p. 65)‘Yantra-mantra-gurukam’, the collective villageidiom for amulets, incantations, spells, and the like(p. 54)Though there is an English term for the Sinhalese term‘msfoaks’-Pidēni as ‘oblation’, the translators have refrainedthat term and preferred the following method of SentenceEmbedded Annotated Borrowing. csfoaks- Pidēni (p. 67)Pidēni, the stand carrying offerings to demon spirits,exposed to the stares of the exorcists (p. 56)The usage of Converted Borrowing can be also seen innumber of situations in which another form of the SL term isborrowed and transliterated it in TL letters. iEh- Sǟya (p.162) – the dāgäba (p. 150)www.rsisinternational.orgHere, the translators have used another Sinhalese form of theword ‘iEh’, -Sǟya- which is ‘od.en’- dāgäba in the translationand transliterated it.The method of Loan Blend was used in the followingexample, in which the word ‘fnda’-bō was borrowed from theSL and ‘rel’ –Ruka was translated by using the method ofLiteral Translation, which gives the English term of that word. fnda rel (p. 161) – Bo-tree (p. 150)There are instances, where the translators have combinedmultiple translation methods when CU occurred as follows. zfjfol ,jd f,vdg fjolï lrjk ''' Z-vedekulavā karavana (p. 64)‘supplement treatment by a practitioner of Ayurveda,the ancient system of traditional medicine ’ (p. 53)In the above example, the translators have used the method ofParaphrase as ‘supplement treatment by a practitioner ofAyurveda,’ at the first stage and the method of SentenceEmbedded Annotated Borrowing as ‘Ayurveda, the ancientsystem of traditional medicine’ at the last stage, whichexplained the borrowed term. hleÿrl ,jd hleÿrlï lrùu- yakäduru lavāyakädurukam karavīma (p. 64)the services of a village shaman, the Yakädurā,literally ‘one who gets rid of bad spirits’. (p. 53)Here, the translators have used both Literal Translationmethod as ‘the services of a village shaman’ as well asSentence Embedded Annotated Borrowing as ‘the Yakädurā,literally ‘one who gets rid of bad spirits’.In converting some CU terms, a special sign of neologism canbe seen. The translators have invented new terms asmentioned in the following example. They have proposed theterm ‘light-gazer’ in the TL providing an explanation of thatterm followed by it. wxckï t sldrhd- aṁjanam eḷikārayā (p. 65)‘light-gazer’ who read the future through the flameof a lamp placed before a circular patch of lampblack (p.53)In the following example, the Sanskrit term of the Sinhaleseword ‘ilalrhd’, - Sakkarayā which is ‘il%’- Sakra was usedby transliterating it together with an English translated phrase.Here, they have used both methods of Converted Borrowingand Paraphrase. ilalrhd (p.155) – the Lord of Heaven, Sakkrayā (p.143)Moreover, when translating some CU, the translators havetranslated the same SL term variously in several situations.While the word ‘f;dú,h’- tovilaya has been translated byusing the method of Paraphrase in page number 55, it hasbeen translated by using the combination of Borrowing andPage 306

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-6186Equivalence in page number 91 as ‘tovil ceremony’. This canbe considered an especial types of Borrowing. Further, on thesame page this term has been translated in a quite differentway as ‘tovil exorcism’. Here, this term has been translated inboth ways of using methods of Borrowing and LiteralTranslation simultaneously. Though, the term ‘exorcism’gives the same meaning of the SL word ‘f;dú,h’- tovilaya,they have not used it sporadically in any situation. These twomethods of translation can be defined as two new methods ofBorrowing. f;dú,h -tovilaya (p. 67, 102)1.2.3.the performance of a series of rituals (p. 55)thovil ceremony (p. 91)thovil exorcism (p. 91)This scenario can be seen in many situations in thistranslation. For example, the word ‘fldäúkh’ has beentranslated as ‘Sorcery’ using Literal Translation method andas ‘Kodivina spell’ using the both methods of Borrowing andEquivalence in another situation. fldäúkh- Kodivina1.2.Sorcery (p. 91)Kodivina spell (p. 91)However, using different terms for the same SL term in atranslation may lead to misinterpretation of the translation andit may confuse the TL readers. This inconsistency ofterminologies can be seen throughout this translation.Further, the Sinhalese term ‘l , isrs;a’- kula sirit has beentranslated in various ways using the method of Paraphrase.Some of them are as follows, l , isrs;a- kula sirit (p. 166, 167)rules of conduct, social code, highly standards ofmorality, high standards of conduct, morality and thesocially approved standards of behaviour,conventional standards of virtue (p. 156, 157)There are instances where the two translators have loss intranslation in which they were unable to preserve theredolence of the Sinhalese Buddhist cultural or the fragranceof the SL culture. For instance, in translating ‘idx sl odkh’sāṁghika dānaya (p. 182) as ‘alms’ (p.170) and ‘odkh’ –dānaya (p. 182) as ‘food’ (p.170).3.Proper Nouns, Kinship Terms, and Personal PronounsBasically, Sinhalese proper names, Kinship terms, andpersonal pronouns have been translated into English by usingthe methods of Borrowing and Paraphrase, or withcombination of both of these methods. For examples,Proper Nouns: ud;r ydñfka - Matara HaminēKinship terms: ndmamd – bāppā- paternal uncletranslating those specific terms. Though the Englishtranslation for all the personal pronouns, ‘WU’, ‘WU,d’uṁbalā, and ‘fnd,d’-bolā is ‘you’, and ‘Wka’-un is ‘they’,these English terms cannot preserve the cultural aspects suchas feelings and the expressions of the speaker imply fromthose terms. Normally, above terms are used to addresssomeone who is very close or someone whom we dislike orsomeone whose social class is low. Further, the term ‘fnd,d’bolā is a dialectical term derived specially and only from theSouthern part of the Sri Lanka. If it is translated as ‘you’, itdoes not give that particular cultural sense of the term. Thiscan be categorized as a situation of CU as there is no separatereplacement in English. Moreover, transliterating the nouns‘Wmdilïud’ as ‘Upāsakammā’, ‘Wmdil ydñfka’ as‘Upāsaka Hāminé’, and ‘Wmdilhd’ as ‘Upāsakayā’ withoutany explanation or footnote do not sufficient for a TL readerto comprehend the real meaning of the particular context. Thisis a situation where translators have lost in overcoming CU.4.Names of Places and Terms related to TransportationWhen translating names of places and terms related totransportation, specific to Sri Lanka, the translators have usedthe method of Borrowing such as, foajdf,a ., - Devalegalauyf.or - Mahagedaramrf.dv - ParagodaHowever, the place ‘isxyf,a’ has been translated in two waysas ‘Sinhale’ using the method of Borrowing and as ‘Hillcountry’ using the method of Literal Translation.Further, the method of Loan Blend has been used to translatethe term ‘älals lr;a;h’ as ‘dikki cart’ where CU occurredand ‘nr lr;a;h’ was translated as ‘a bullock-cart’, which isa fixed term in English. In translating the noun ‘.e,alre’, thetranslators have just translated it by using the method ofEquivalence in which the translators find similar terms in thetarget language, which seems to give a similar meaning. Itwas translated as ‘driver’ while there is a fixed English termfor that as ‘carter’. Though the word ‘driver’ gives the samemeaning, it misinterprets the real contextual meaning.5.Names of MaterialsIn Sinhalese language, there are numerous cultural specificterm for materials, which only own by Sri Lankans or only bySouth Asians. Most of such terms belong to the category ofCU as they are unfamiliar for the English speaking audience.Some of such terms are as follows, ; kaysrs mka meÿqr- Tuṁhiri paṁpädura (p. 44) – theneatly woven mat of dried thunhiri sedge (p. 34)In translating the aforementioned term, the translators haveused the method of Paraphrase explaining what ‘; kaysrs mkameÿqr’- Tuṁhiri paṁpädura means for the TL audience.Though these translation methods could solve most of thesituations, there are still some problems regarding CU whenwww.rsisinternational.orgPage 307

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-6186‘I want to send a roll of dodol to Tissa. He likes thatsweet, and it will keep longer in its puwak sheath,’(p. 131)The method of Loan Blend was used in the following examplein which ‘Kitul’ was a borrowed term and rest of the wordsare a result of the method of Literal Translation. ls; ,a fmd,a,-kitul polla (p. 132) – Kitul wood baton(p. 121)The usage of the translation method of Sentence EmbeddedAnnotated Borrowing can also be seen in translating names ofbooks such as, iso;a iÕrdj- (p.184) – the Sidat Sangarava, theclassical treatise on Sinhala grammar. (p. 172)When translating names of materials, the translators have usedseveral English terms for the same Sinhalese term as follows,this may mislead the reader. Though there is an English termfor the word ‘lkmamqj’-kanappuva in English as ‘tea-poy’, thetranslators have used the term ‘little table’ in some instances.Further, two English paraphrased terms for ‘fldry’-korahahave been inconsistently used throughout the translation. 6.7.Proverbs and IdiomsProverbs and idioms are important aspects of linguistic culturein any country as they are derived from the country’sgeographical environment, historical culture, and theirdevelopment. If the SL and the TL societies do not share thesame geographical, social, and historical background, it is noteasy to translate proverbs and idioms of one culture intoanother culture directly. This fact is also evident in thistranslation when observing the following.As the first proverb is familiar to the TL culture, it has beendirectly translated by using the method of Literal Translationand for translating the second proverb; the translators haveused the method of Paraphrase as there is no similar proverbsfound in the TL culture. lkmamqj – kanappuva- tea-poy (p. 68), little table (p.164)fldry - koraha- large earthen-ware basin (p. 19),large pot (p. 171) Names of FoodsIn translating names of foods, the same issues and similarmethods of translation can be seen. The Literal Translationmethod, ‘oil-cake’ for the term ‘lejqï’-kävum has not beenconsistently used in the translation. It has been also translatedby using the method of Sentence Embedded AnnotatedBorrowing as follows. lejqïa kevum, the traditional small cone-shaped bun madeof rice flour cooked in boiling hot coconut oil (p. 62)oil-cake (p. 149)The term ‘fodfod,a’-Dodol has been translated by using themethod of Regular Borrowing. However, the phrase ‘fodfod,amÜghla’- Dodol paṭṭayak has been translated as ‘a roll ofdodol’ rather than translating as ‘a plate of dodol’ and addedextra information as ‘.it will keep longer in its puwaksheath,’ to give an understanding of how this sweet isprepared and wrapped. Further, in order to proclaim that‘dodol’ is a sweet, the translators have used the word ‘sweet’instead of ‘dodol’ in the next sentence. This can be consideredas a proper strategy to overcome this CU, which is defined asthe method of Compensation. z;siaig fodfod,a mÜghla yo,d hjkak kE' ;siaifodfod,aj,g leu;sZ hs (p. 143)-Tissaṭa Dodolpaṭṭayak hadala yvanna ōnǟ. Tissa f;, úof.k kÕsk b lgq ; v fuka (p. 141)Gitela vidagena naṁgina idikatu tuda men- like aneedle piercing through butter (p. 129)kïnqj ln,a .dkak jEhï lrk yeá (p.198) –nambuva kabal gānna vǟyam karana häṭi makesuch a big issue of social prestige (p. 184)Other Terms fimamä úcacd- seppadi vjjā(p. 195)(p. 209) - sham showThe aforementioned phrase has been translated into English as‘sham show’ by using the translation method of Calque inwhich each TL word has been word-for-word translated ratherthan using a fixed TL term.In some contexts of appearing CU, the translators have usedthe techniques of omission and addition. In such situations,mistranslations can be captured.Omissions zrd ydñ" fï ldrKh kï lrkak tmdZ hs fõfoayrcqg wkqYdikd l fiaklhd fuka" tlaffoj{fhla lhsidrej;af;ag wkqYdikd lf a h'Rālahāmi mē kāraṇaya nam karann epā’y vēdēharajuta anuśāsanā kaḷa sēnakayā men ek daivajñyekkayisāruvattēṭa anuśāsanā kaḷēya (p. 69)‘Ralahamy, do not go ahead with this proposal’ wasthe oracular advice of one of the astrologers whoseopinion was sought by Kaisaruwatte. (p. 58)In the above mentioned example, the phrase ‘fõfoay rcqgwkqYdikd l fiaklhd fuka’- Vēdēha rajuta anuśāsanākaḷa sēnakayā men has been omitted, which has not harmedthe original meaning of the SL sentence.Page 308

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume III, Issue IX, September 2019 ISSN 2454-6186AdditionsThe following term ‘mxÑ fl skjd’-Pṁci keḷinavā ha

3. Literal translation: This is 'word-for-word' translation, which Vinay and Darbelnet describe as being most common between languages of the same family and culture (e. g. tlÕis;a – ekangasit- peace of mind). ‘Literal translation is the author prescription for good translation: literalness should