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Strategic BrandManagementBuilding, Measuring, andManaging Brand EquityFifth EditionKevin Lane KellerTuck School of BusinessDartmouth CollegeVanitha SwaminathanKatz Graduate School of BusinessUniversity of PittsburghA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 329/12/2018 02:48

Vice President, Business, Economics, and UKCourseware: Donna BattistaDirector of Portfolio Management:Stephanie WallExecutive Portfolio Manager: Lynn M. HuddonEditorial Assistant: Rachel ChouVice President, Product Marketing:Roxanne McCarleySenior Product Marketer: Becky BrownProduct Marketing Assistant: Marianela SilvestriManager of Field Marketing, Business Publishing:Adam GoldsteinField Marketing Manager: Nicole PriceVice President, Production and Digital Studio,Arts and Business: Etain O’DeaDirector, Production and Digital Studio, Businessand Economics: Ashley SantoraManaging Producer, Business: Melissa FeimerContent Producer: Michelle ZengOperations Specialist: Carol MelvilleDesign Lead: Kathryn FootFull Service Project Management: Ana Diaz-Caneja/Bhanuprakash Sherla, Pearson CSCInterior Design: Pearson CSCCover Design: Pearson CSCCover Art: wowomnom/ShutterstockPrinter/Binder: LSC Communications, Inc./WillardCover Printer: Phoenix Color/HagerstownMicrosoft and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the informationcontained in the documents and related graphics published as part of the services for any purpose. All suchdocuments and related graphics are provided “as is” without warranty of any kind. Microsoft and/or itsrespective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, includingall warranties and conditions of merchantability, whether express, implied or statutory, fitness for a particularpurpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Microsoft and/or its respective suppliers be liable forany special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data orprofits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connectionwith the use or performance of information available from the services.The documents and related graphics contained herein could include technical inaccuracies or typographicalerrors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Microsoft and/or its respective suppliersmay make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.Partial screen shots may be viewed in full within the software version specified.Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and othercountries. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation.Copyright 2020, 2013, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. 221 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030. or its affiliates.All Rights Reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright,and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrievalsystem, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms, and the appropriate contacts within the PearsonEducation Global Rights and Permissions department, please visit of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text.PEARSON and ALWAYS LEARNING are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates in the U.S. and/or other countries.Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks, logos, or icons that may appear in this work arethe property of their respective owners, and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, icons, or other tradedress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or anyrelationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors.Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available on file at the Library of Congress.119ISBN 10: 0-13-489249-6ISBN 13: 978-0-13-489249-8A01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 429/12/2018 02:48

DedicationThis book is dedicated tothe memories of my father and motherwith much love, respect, and admiration.—KLKThis book is dedicated to the memory ofmy father, to my mother, and to my family,with much love and gratitude.—VSA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 529/12/2018 02:48

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BRIEF CONTENTSPART IOpening Perspectives1CHAPTER 1 Brands and Brand ManagementPART II1Developing a Brand Strategy37CHAPTER 2 Customer-Based Brand Equity and Brand PositioningCHAPTER 3 Brand Resonance and the Brand Value ChainPART III3776Designing and Implementing Brand Marketing ProgramsCHAPTER 4 Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand Equity111CHAPTER 5 Designing Marketing Programs to Build Brand Equity147CHAPTER 6 Integrating Marketing Communications to Build Brand EquityCHAPTER 7 Branding in the Digital Era184219CHAPTER 8 Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations to Build Brand EquityPART IV111Measuring And Interpreting Brand Performance261297CHAPTER 9 Developing a Brand Equity Measurement and ManagementSystem 297CHAPTER 10 Measuring Sources of Brand Equity: Capturing CustomerMind-Set 331CHAPTER 11 Measuring Outcomes of Brand Equity: Capturing MarketPerformance 370PART VGrowing and Sustaining Brand Equity395CHAPTER 12 Designing and Implementing Brand Architecture StrategiesCHAPTER 13 Introducing and Naming New Products and Brand ExtensionsCHAPTER 14 Managing Brands Over Time395438481CHAPTER 15 Managing Brands Over Geographic Boundaries and MarketSegments 516PART VIClosing PerspectivesCHAPTER 16 Closing Observations549549viiA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 729/12/2018 02:48

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CONTENTSPreface xxiAbout the AuthorsPART IxxixOpening Perspectives1CHAPTER 1 Brands and Brand ManagementPreview12What Is a Brand?2Brand Elements 2Brands versus Products3BRANDING BRIEF 1-1:Coca-Cola’s Branding LessonWhy Do Brands Matter?ConsumersFirms 7566Can Anything Be Branded?BRANDING BRIEF 1-2:Physical Goods8Branding Commodities910THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 1-1:History of BrandingTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 1-2:Understanding Business-to-Business BrandingServices101112BRANDING BRIEF 1-3: Adobe13Retailers and Distributors 14Digital Brands 14People and Organizations 16Sports, Arts, and Entertainment 17BRANDING BRIEF 1-4:Place Branding19Geographic Locations 19Ideas and Causes 19What Are the Strongest Brands?THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 1-3:19On Brand Relevance and Brand DifferentiationBranding Challenges and Opportunities2122Unparalleled Access to Information and New Technologies 22Downward Pressure on Prices 22Ubiquitous Connectivity and the Consumer Backlash 23Sharing Information and Goods 23Unexpected Sources of Competition 24Disintermediation and Reintermediation 24Alternative Sources of Information about Product Quality 25Winner-Takes-All Markets 25Media Transformation 26The Importance of Customer-Centricity 27The Brand Equity Concept 28Strategic Brand Management Process29Identifying and Developing Brand Plans 29Designing and Implementing Brand Marketing Programs29ixA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 929/12/2018 02:48

xCONTENTSMeasuring and Interpreting Brand PerformanceGrowing and Sustaining Brand Equity 31Review31Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 1.0:NotesPART II3032Unlocking the Secrets of Digital Native Brands3234Developing a Brand Strategy37CHAPTER 2 Customer-Based Brand Equity and Brand PositioningPreview3738Customer-Based Brand Equity38Defining Customer-Based Brand EquityBrand Equity as a Bridge 3938Making a Brand Strong: Brand KnowledgeSources of Brand Equity 4241Brand Awareness 42Brand Image 46Identifying and Establishing Brand PositioningBasic Concepts 47Target Market 48Nature of Competition 51Points-of-Parity and Points-of-DifferenceBRANDING BRIEF 2-1:52Subaru Finds Its GroovePositioning Guidelines475254Defining and Communicating the Competitive Frame of ReferenceChoosing Points-of-Difference 55Establishing Points-of-Parity and Points-of-Difference 56BRANDING BRIEF 2-2: Positioning PoliticiansStraddle Positions 58Updating Positioning over Time 59THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 2-1:Developing a Good PositioningDefining a Brand MantraBrand Mantras57Brand Values Pyramid61636363BRANDING BRIEF 2-3:Nike Brand MantraBRANDING BRIEF 2-4:Disney Brand MantraTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 2-2:Review546465Branding Inside the Organization67Discussion Questions68BRAND FOCUS 2.0: The Marketing Advantages of Strong BrandsNotes6870CHAPTER 3 Brand Resonance and the Brand Value ChainPreview677677Building a Strong Brand: The Four Steps of Brand Building77Brand Salience 77Brand Performance 82Brand Imagery 83A01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 1029/12/2018 02:48

CONTENTSTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 3-1:How Customer Experiences Define a Brandxi86Brand Judgments 87Brand Feelings 89Brand Resonance 90BRANDING BRIEF 3-1:Building Brand CommunitiesBrand-Building ImplicationsBRANDING BRIEF 3-2:The Brand Value Chain9192How Digital Platform-Based Brands Create Customer Engagement9798Value Stages 99Implications 101Review102Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 3.0:Notes104Creating Customer Value104107PART III Designing and Implementing Brand Marketing ProgramsCHAPTER 4 Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand EquityPreview111111112Criteria for Choosing Brand Elements112Memorability 113Meaningfulness 113Likability 113Transferability 113Adaptability 114THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 4-1:ProtectabilityCounterfeit Business Is Booming115116Options and Tactics for Brand Elements117Brand Names 117URLs 123Logos and Symbols 124Characters 125BRANDING BRIEF 4-1:SlogansStarKist’s Charlie the Tuna126128BRANDING BRIEF 4-2:Updating Betty Crocker128Jingles 131Packaging 132Putting It All Together136BRANDING BRIEF 4-3:ReviewDiscussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 4.0:NotesDo-Overs with Brand Makeovers136138139Legal Branding Considerations139142CHAPTER 5 Designing Marketing Programs to Build Brand EquityPreview148New Perspectives on MarketingIntegrating Marketing 150A01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 1114714829/12/2018 02:48

xiiCONTENTSBRANDING BRIEF 5-1: Yeti Is the “Cooler” BrandPersonalizing Marketing 151Reconciling the Different Marketing ApproachesProduct Strategy157159THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 5-1:Understanding Consumer Price PerceptionsConsumer Price Perceptions and Setting PricesSummary 165Channel StrategyChannel Design160160166166THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 5-2:Indirect Channels156156Perceived Quality 156Managing Customers Post-PurchasePricing Strategy150Research on Omnichannel168168BRANDING BRIEF 5-2:Chew on This: How Milk-Bone Brushing Chews Connected with Customers170Direct Channels 172Online Strategies 174Summary 174Review175Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 5.0:Notes175Private-Label Strategies and Responses176179CHAPTER 6 Integrating Marketing Communications to Build Brand EquityPreview185The New Media Environment186Challenges in Designing Brand-Building CommunicationsRole of Multiple Communications 188Four Major Marketing Communication OptionsAdvertising186188188THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 6-1: The Importance of Database MarketingPromotion 198Online Marketing CommunicationsEvents and Experiences 200BRANDING BRIEF 6-1:Brand Amplifiers200Brand Building via the X Games203205Developing Integrated Marketing Communication ProgramsCriteria for IMC ProgramsUsing IMC Choice CriteriaCoordinating Media to Build Brand Equity209211211Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 6.0:A01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 12206207THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 6-2:Notes195205Public Relations and PublicityWord-of-Mouth 206Review184212Empirical Generalizations in Advertising21321529/12/2018 02:48

CONTENTSCHAPTER 7 Branding in the Digital EraPreviewxiii219220Key Issues for Branding in the Digital EraChanges in the Consumer Decision JourneyGrowth of Online Retailing 222220220BRANDING BRIEF 7-1: The Phenomenal Rise of AmazonAdvertising and Promotions Using Digital ChannelsBRANDING BRIEF 7-2:222224Igniting a Digital Firestorm224One-to-Many to Many-to-Many Channels 225Increase in Consumer Touchpoints 226Increase in Data Availability 226Digital Personalization 227Loss of Control over Brand Message and Co-Creation of Brand MeaningUser Experience Is the Key to Digital Brand Success 231THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 7-1:Always Good? 231Brands as Cultural SymbolsBrand Engagement229Is Co-Creation of Brands and Products232233Brand Engagement Pyramid 234Negative Brand Engagement 234BRANDING BRIEF 7-3:Shaving the Price of RazorsTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 7-2:Digital Communications235Drivers of Brand Engagement236236Company Web Sites 238E-mail Marketing 238BRANDING BRIEF 7-4:Campaigning Using Clicks with Google AdWordsOverview of Social Media Paid ChannelsFacebook 242Twitter 245Instagram 245Pinterest 246Video 246Global Use of Social MediaBRANDING BRIEF 7-5:Mobile Marketing242247On Being Social in China247248BRANDING BRIEF 7-6: Turning Flight Delays into Marketing OpportunitiesInfluencer Marketing and Social Media CelebritiesContent Marketing 251Brand Management Structure249250Guidelines for Good Content Marketing 251Case Studies 252Legal and Ethical Considerations 252The Pros and Cons of Paid Channels and the Need for IntegrationReview240253254255Discussion Questions255BRAND FOCUS 7.0: Understanding How Online Word-of-Mouth Influences Brands andBrand Management 256NotesA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 1325729/12/2018 02:48

xivCONTENTSCHAPTER 8 Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations to Build Brand EquityPreview262Conceptualizing the Leveraging ProcessCreation of New Brand AssociationsEffects on Existing Brand KnowledgeGuidelines 265Company263263263266BRANDING BRIEF 8-1:IBM Promotes a Smarter PlanetCountry of Origin and Other Geographic AreasBRANDING BRIEF 8-2:Channels of DistributionCo-BrandingGuidelinesUnderstanding Retailers’ Brand Images272273Understanding Brand Alliances275277BRANDING BRIEF 8-3:Ingredient Branding the DuPont Way279280Guidelines282Celebrity EndorsementPotential ProblemsGuidelines283284BRANDING BRIEF 8-4:Rachael Ray’s Nutrish285287BRANDING BRIEF 8-5:Managing a Person BrandSocial Influencers as the New CelebritiesSporting, Cultural, or Other EventsThird-Party Sources 290288289289291Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 8.0:PART IV270274Ingredient BrandingNotes268272THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 8-2:Review266Selling Brands the New Zealand WayTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 8-1:Licensing261291Going for Corporate Gold at the Olympics292293Measuring And Interpreting Brand Performance297CHAPTER 9 D eveloping a Brand Equity Measurement and ManagementSystem 297Preview298The New Accountability 298Conducting Brand Audits 299Brand Inventory 300Brand Exploratory 302Brand Positioning and the Supporting Marketing Program306THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 9-1: The Role of Brand PersonasDesigning Brand Tracking StudiesWhat to Track308308BRANDING BRIEF 9-1:Sample Brand Tracking SurveyBig Data and Marketing Analytics DashboardsMarketing Analytics DashboardsA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 1430730931131229/12/2018 02:48

CONTENTSBRANDING BRIEF 9-2:Its Customers 312xvHow Taco Bell Uses Data-Driven Social Media Marketing to EngageEstablishing a Brand Equity Management SystemBRANDING BRIEF 9-3:314Understanding and Managing the Mayo Clinic Brand314Brand Charter or Bible 316Brand Equity Report 317Brand Equity Responsibilities 318THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 9-2:ReviewBRAND FOCUS 9.0:CHAPTER 10318321Discussion QuestionsNotesMaximizing Internal Branding321Sample Rolex Brand Audit322329 easuring Sources of Brand Equity: Capturing CustomerMMind-Set 331Preview332Qualitative Research Techniques332BRANDING BRIEF 10-1: Digging Beneath the Surface to UnderstandConsumer Behavior 333Free Association334THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 10-1:Associations and Positioning 336Projective TechniquesUsing Text Mining to Uncover Brand336BRANDING BRIEF 10-2:Once Upon a Time . . . You Were What You CookedZaltman Metaphor Elicitation TechniqueNeural Research Methods 339Brand Personality and Values 341Ethnographic and Experiential MethodsBRANDING BRIEF 10-3:338342Making the Most of Consumer Insights342BRANDING BRIEF 10-4:Netnography as a Digital Research TechniqueBRANDING BRIEF 10-5:Research Data 345How P&G Innovates Using QualitativeSummary337343345Quantitative Research Techniques345Brand Awareness 346Brand Image 348Social Media Listening and MonitoringBRANDING BRIEF 10-6:Brand Responses350Gatorade’s Social Media Command Center352BRANDING BRIEF 10-7:Brand RelationshipsUnderstanding Attribution Modeling353354THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 10-2:Understanding Brand EngagementComprehensive Models of Consumer-Based Brand EquityReviewDiscussion QuestIonsA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 15357359359360BRAND FOCUS 10.0: Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset ValuatorNotes35136136729/12/2018 02:48

xviCONTENTSCHAPTER 11 M easuring Outcomes of Brand Equity: Capturing MarketPerformance 370Preview371Comparative Methods372Brand-Based Comparative Approaches 372Marketing-Based Comparative Approaches 373Conjoint Analysis 375Holistic Methods376Residual Approaches 377Valuation Approaches 378Brand Valuation: A Review of Major ApproachesInterbrand 382BrandZ 383Brand Finance 384Comparing the Major Brand Valuation ApproachesTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 11-1:ReviewDiscussion QuestionsPART V384Understanding Brand Valuation386387BRAND FOCUS 11.0:Notes382388Financial Perspectives on Brands and the Brand Value Chain389391Growing and Sustaining Brand EquityCHAPTER 12 Designing and Implementing Brand Architecture StrategiesPreview395396Developing a Brand Architecture Strategy396THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 12-1: The Brand–Product MatrixStep 1: Defining Brand PotentialBRANDING BRIEF 12-1:397398Google: Expanding Beyond Search399Step 2: Identifying Brand Extension Opportunities 401Step 3: Specifying Brand Elements for Branding New Products and ServicesSummary 402Brand Portfolios402402BRANDING BRIEF 12-2:Brand HierarchiesExpanding the Marriott Brand403406Levels of a Brand Hierarchy 407Designing a Brand Hierarchy 409BRANDING BRIEF 12-3:Corporate BrandingNetflix: Evolving a Brand Architecture to Grow the Brand416BRANDING BRIEF 12-4:Corporate Reputations: The Most Admired U.S. CompaniesTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 12-2:Corporate Image DimensionsBRANDING BRIEF 12-5:Brand Architecture Strategies: House of Brands or Branded House?Corporate Innovation at 3M417419422THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 12-3: When Brands Trade HandsBrand Architecture Guidelines425427428Discussion QuestionsA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 16417418Managing the Corporate BrandReview40942929/12/2018 02:48

CONTENTSBRAND FOCUS 12.0:NotesCorporate Social Responsibility And Brand Strategyxvii430434CHAPTER 13 I ntroducing and Naming New Products and BrandExtensions 438Preview439New Products and Brand ExtensionsBRANDING BRIEF 13-1:439Growing the McDonald’s BrandAdvantages of Extensions440442Facilitate New-Product Acceptance 442Provide Feedback Benefits to the Parent BrandDisadvantages of Brand Extensions445447Can Confuse or Frustrate Consumers 447Can Encounter Retailer Resistance 447Can Fail and Hurt Parent Brand Image 448Can Succeed but Cannibalize Sales of Parent Brand 448Can Succeed, but Diminish Identification with Any One Category448BRANDING BRIEF 13-2: Are There Any Boundaries to the Virgin Brand Name?Can Succeed, but Hurt the Image of the Parent Brand 450Can Dilute Brand Meaning 450Can Cause the Company to Forego the Chance to Develop a New BrandUnderstanding How Consumers Evaluate Brand ExtensionsManagerial Assumptions 452Brand Extensions and Brand EquityVertical Brand Extensions 454449451451452THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 13-1:Scoring Brand ExtensionsBRANDING BRIEF 13-3: Levi’s Extends Its BrandEvaluating Brand Extension Opportunities454457458Define Actual and Desired Consumer Knowledge about the Brand 459Identify Possible Extension Candidates 459Evaluate the Potential of the Extension Candidate 459Design Marketing Programs to Launch Extension 461Evaluate Extension Success and Effects on Parent Brand Equity 462Extension Guidelines Based on Academic ResearchReviewDiscussion Questions470BRAND FOCUS 13.0: Apple: Creating a Tech MegabrandNotes481482Reinforcing Brands482Maintaining Brand Consistency485BRANDING BRIEF 14-1:PatagoniaBRANDING BRIEF 14-2:Pabst488Protecting Sources of Brand Equity489486BRANDING BRIEF 14-3: VolkswagenTHE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 14-1:490Understanding Brand CrisesFortifying versus Leveraging 493Fine-Tuning the Supporting Marketing ProgramA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 17471475CHAPTER 14 Managing Brands Over TimePreview46247049149329/12/2018 02:48

xviiiCONTENTSRevitalizing Brands495BRANDING BRIEF 14-4:Harley-Davidson Motor Company496BRANDING BRIEF 14-5: A New Morning for Mountain DewBRANDING BRIEF 14-6:Remaking Burberry’s Image498499Expanding Brand Awareness 501Improving Brand Image 504Adjustments to the Brand Portfolio507Migration Strategies 507Acquiring New Customers 507Retiring Brands 507Obsoleting Existing Products 508Review509Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 14.0:Notes510Responding to a Brand Crisis511513CHAPTER 15 M anaging Brands Over Geographic Boundaries and MarketSegments 516Preview517Regional Market Segments 517Other Demographic and Cultural Segments518Marketing Based on Age 518Marketing Based on Ethnicity 520Global Branding521BRANDING BRIEF 15-1:Marketing to Ethnic GroupsWhy Should a Brand Focus on Global Markets?Advantages of Global Marketing 524Disadvantages of Global Marketing 525THE SCIENCE OF BRANDING 15-1:Research Findings 527522524Key Insights Regarding Global Brand Strategies Based onStrategies for Creating & Managing Global Brands529Creating Global Brand Equity 529Global Brand Positioning 529BRANDING BRIEF 15-2:Coca-Cola’s Global Brand Strategy with Local ElementsCustomizing Marketing Mix Elements in Local Markets for Global BrandsProduct Strategy 532Communication StrategyPricing Strategy 533531532533Marketing to Consumers in Developing and Developed Markets 534Ten Commandments to Building Global Customer-Based Brand Equity 534BRANDING BRIEF 15-3:Marketing to Bicultural Consumers Using Bilingual Advertising 536BRANDING BRIEF 15-4:Managing Global Nestlé BrandsReviewDiscussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 15.0:NotesA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 18538542542China’s Global Brand Ambitions54354429/12/2018 02:48

CONTENTSPART VIClosing PerspectivesCHAPTER 16 Closing ObservationsPreview549549550Strategic Brand Management Guidelines550Summary of Customer-Based Brand Equity FrameworkTactical Guidelines 552What Makes a Strong Brand?BRANDING BRIEF 16-2:Future Brand Priorities550556BRANDING BRIEF 16-1: The Brand Report Card556Reinvigorating Branding at Procter & Gamble563566570Discussion QuestionsBRAND FOCUS 16.0:Notes558560Fully and Accurately Factor the Consumer into the Branding Equation 560Go Beyond Product Performance and Rational Benefits 562Make the Whole of the Marketing Program Greater Than the Sum of the PartsUnderstand Where You Can Take a Brand (and How) 565Do the “Right Thing” with Brands 566Take a Big Picture View of Branding Effects. Know What Is Working (and Why)Finding the Branding Sweet Spot 567New Capabilities for Brand Marketers 568Reviewxix570Special Applications570576Index 579A01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 1929/12/2018 02:48

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PREFACEWHAT IS THE BOOK ABOUT?This book deals with brands—why they are important, what they represent to consumers, andwhat firms should do to manage them properly. As many business executives now recognize,perhaps one of the most valuable assets a firm has are the brands it has invested in and developedover time. Although brands may represent invaluable intangible assets, creating and nurturing astrong brand poses considerable challenges.The chief purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of thesubjects of brands, brand equity, and strategic brand management—the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build, measure, and manage brand equity. One ofthe book’s important goals is to provide managers with concepts and techniques to improve thelong-term profitability of their brand strategies. We incorporate current thinking and developments on these topics from both academics and industry participants, and combine a comprehensive theoretical foundation with enough practical insights to assist managers in their day-to-dayand long-term brand decisions. And we draw on illustrative examples and case studies of brandsmarketed in the United States and all over the world.We address three important questions:1. How can we create brand equity?2. How can we measure brand equity?3. How can we sustain brand equity to expand business opportunities?What’s Different about This Book?Although a number of excellent books have been written about brands, no book has really maximized breadth, depth and relevance to the greatest possible extent. We developed a frameworkthat provides a definition of brand equity, identified sources and outcomes of brand equity, andprovided tactical guidelines about how to build, measure, and manage brand equity. The framework approaches branding from the perspective of the consumer; it is called customer-basedbrand equity.Who Should Read the Book?A wide range of people can benefit from reading this book: Students interested in increasing both their understanding of basic branding principles andtheir exposure to classic and contemporary branding applications and case studies Managers and analysts concerned with the effects of their day-to-day marketing decisionson brand performance Senior executives concerned with the longer-term prosperity of their brand franchises andproduct or service portfolios All marketers interested in new ideas with implications for marketing strategies and tacticsThe perspective we adopt is relevant to any type of organization (public or private, large orsmall), and the examples cover a wide range of industries and geographies.NEW TO THIS EDITIONAs we all know, the world of marketing is undergoing a radical transformation. The growth ofdigital and mobile technologies has given consumers the ability to connect with each other atwarped speed and on a scale that has never been witnessed before. The access to information intoday’s world is unparalleled, and brand marketers are using a plethora of new digital channelsto connect with consumers, creating exciting new opportunities along with daunting new challenges for brands.A01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 21xxi29/12/2018 02:48

xxiiPREFACENEW: A Greater Focus on Digital BrandingAgainst this backdrop, the new edition has taken a fresh look at branding paradigms and practicesthrough a digital lens, while retaining aspects of traditional brand management that continue tobe important and relevant. We have achieved this both by updating existing material and adding new examples with a view toward incorporating the latest developments. More important, awhole new Chapter 7 titled “Branding in the Digital Era” has been written. This chapter provides an overview of the key changes that have transformed the world of branding, has integrateda variety of new case studies to highlight these changes, and has proposed a novel way of assessing impact of brands on consumers using the metric of brand engagement. This chapter also provides a comprehensive overview of the major digital channels, and discusses their pros and cons.NEW Examples and Boxes in Chapters 1–16We also highlight the many changes to the brand management function and have incorporated updated content throughout all the chapters, adding new material on important examples or t opicsabout brands as listed in the following section:NEW EXAMPLES AND BOXES IN FIFTH EDITIONChapterBrand and/or Topic1: Brands and Brand ManagementNew Examples: Adobe, Airbnb, Lady Gaga, LaCroixNew Brand Focus: Unlocking the Secrets of Digital NativeBrands2: Customer-Based Brand Equity and BrandPositioningNew Example: Annie’s Homegrown, Netflix3: Brand Resonance and Brand Value ChainNew Branding Brief: How Digital-Platform-Based BrandsCreate Customer Engagement4: Choosing Brand Elements to Build BrandEquityNew Examples: JetBlue, Method, StarKist’s CharlieNew Branding Briefs: Do-Overs with Brand Makeovers; TheBattle over Trademarks5: Designing Marketing Programs to Build Brand New Example: Yeti Is the Cooler BrandEquityNew Branding Brief: Chew on This: Milk Bone BrushingChews Connected with CustomersNew Science of Branding: Research on Omnichannel6: Integrating Marketing Communications toBuild Brand EquityNew Examples: Tide, Grey Goose7: Branding in the Digital Era (NEW!)New Examples: Pepsi’s Ad Misfire, Tough Mudder, JohnDeere – Furrow MagazineNew Branding Briefs: Campaigning Using Clicks withGoogle AdWords; Igniting a Digital Firestorm, On Being Socialin China; Shaving the Price of Razors; The Phenomenal Rise ofAmazon; Turning Flight Delays into Marketing OpportunitiesNew Science of Branding: Is Co-Creation of Products andBrands Always Good; Drivers of Brand EngagementNew Brand Focus: Understanding How Online Word-ofMouth Influences Brands and Brand Management8: Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations toBuild Brand EquityA01 KELL2498 05 SE FM.indd 22New Example: Grey GooseNew Branding Brief: Rachael Ray’s Nutrish29/12/2018 02:48

PREFACExxiiiChapterBrand and/or Topic9: Developing a Brand Equity Measurement andManagement SystemNew Example: Domino’s Pizza10: Measuring Sources of Brand Equity:Capturing Customer Mind-SetNew Branding Briefs: Gatorade’s Social Media CommandCenter; How P&G Innovates Using Qualitative Research Data;Netnography as a Digital Research Technique; UnderstandingAttribu

PART I Opening Perspectives 1 CHAPTER 1 Brands and Brand Management 1 PART II Developing a Brand Strategy 37 CHAPTER 2 Customer-Based Brand Equity and Brand Positioning 37 CHAPTER 3 Brand Resonance and the Brand Value Chain 76 PART III Designing and Implementing Brand Marketing Programs 111 CHAPTER 4 Choosing Brand Elements to File Size: 1MB