OTS5511DL: INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT (PART 1)ASHLAND THEOLOGICAL SEMINARYMay 9–August 25, 2022; Online [Live Zoom meeting Thursdays, 7:30 – 8:30 pm]David W. Baker, Ph.D.Email: Contact only through BlackboardPlease Note:This course utilizes an online component (Blackboard) as a medium for assignmentsubmission and to provide teaching material. Access to a reliable computer and the internetthrough a high-speed means (dial-up access does not usually work satisfactorily in thiscourse) is required, as is familiarity with the use of Blackboard. For orientation, you willneed to take time to study the following information available on your Blackboardhomepage: (a) the “Video Help Center for Students,” located at the bottom of the centercolumn, and (b) the “Student Orientation” information (right column, last entry under theheading “My Courses”). It is highly recommended that you be familiar with computer andweb functions prior to starting the course since it is not advised to try to learn them while thecourse is in progress. On-line learning often requires more self-motivation than a regularclass and is not suitable for every student.If you encounter technical computer or Blackboard difficulties, contact the AU help desk at 419289-5405.I. Course DescriptionThis study focuses on the content, interpretation, and theology of the books of the Old Testamentcanon from Genesis through 2 Kings. Besides concerted study in the biblical text, the courseexplores aspects of the history, societies, and literature of the ancient Near East relevant to theinterpretation of these books, and their reception in the New Testament.Prerequisite: Students must either have completed or be currently enrolled in BSG 5501:Engaging Texts and Contexts.II. Student Learning OutcomesThis course format consistently meets the same quality, assessment, learning outcomes andrequirements of the traditional semester course format.1a. Demonstrate awareness about what how the interpreter’s context shapes interpretation1b. Critically engage the text’s language, literary forms, and flow of thought1c. Access and utilize dependable secondary literature for historical information and alternativeinterpretations.1d. Explain how the text came to be (from original composition to translation) and the import ofthis for interpretation.2.-6. Are not assessed in this course.III. Course RequirementsA. TextbooksA modern translation of the Bible: New Revised Standard (recommended), Today’s NewInternational Version, Tanakh (JPS), or English Standard Version.16

*Alexander, T. Desmond and David W. Baker, ed., Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch(DOTP), Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2003. ISBN: 978-0-8308-1781-8. [Kindleedition available]*Bill. T. Arnold and H.G.M. Williamson, ed., Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books(DOTHB), Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2005. ISBN: 978-0-8308-1782-5. [Kindleedition available][*How to access the IVP Bible Dictionaries for FREEThe IVP Bible Dictionaries are a set is a full-text online resource consistingof several volumes which are available free of charge to students through theAshland Theological Seminary Library. You can look up topics, places, Biblebooks, and scholarly debate issues. These are quite current and come with valuablebibliographies at the end of each article, which you may use for deeper study(many of those secondary resources, however, will not be online). You may usethese in your short papers.Here is one way to access this through the ATS library: In the middle column of the page, click oneBook Resources (IVP Dictionaries, Bible eCommentaries, Reference, eBookDatabases, and More). [You will likely have to enter your ATS login informationat some stage in this process.] In the purple panel on the left, click on ‘ReligiousStudies Reference’.The page will appear with tabs for various resources. The left tab is‘Dictionaries and Encyclopedias’. Clicking on it will provide a list starting withlinks to each of the eight IVP Bible dictionaries. For this course, two volumes willbe most relevant. Click on either "The IVP Bible Dictionary Series: Dictionary ofthe Old Testament: Pentateuch" or "The IVP Bible Dictionary Series: Dictionaryof the Old Testament: Historical Books.” On the next page, the list of articles inthat book will appear. Click on an article that interests you, e.g., in the Pentateuchvolume, “Sexuality, Sexual Ethics.”Note: to cite an article from a resource like this, go to the top of the article(where title “Sexuality, Sexual Ethics” appears). To the right of the title there is aseries of icons: save, citation, print, share, etc. Select the ‘Citation’ symbol. Thiswill give you a pre-formatted citation for the online source. I would recommendthe MLA option listed across the top, as it appears closest to the Turabian that wespecify for seminary work. Cut and paste this citation into your paper.]Davis, Ellen F. Opening Israel’s Scriptures. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. ISBN:978-0-19-094894-8. [You have FREE access through the ATS library to this textbook bygoing to: There select ‘AshlandUniversity’ under the drop-down ‘Institution’ menu and follow the directions to have accessto the volume.] [Kindle edition available]Gorman, Michael J. Elements of Biblical Exegesis: A Basic Guide for Students and Ministers. 3rdedition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2020. ISBN: 9781540960313. [Kindle edition available; ISBN- 9781493427079] and/orMcMickle, Marvin A. Living Water for Thirsty Souls: Unleashing the Power of ExegeticalPreaching (Valley Forge: Judson Press, 2001). ISBN: 0-8170-1358-X.Rasmussen, Carl G. Zondervan Essential Atlas of the Bible, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013.ISBN: 978-0-310-31857-6.16

B. A note about classroom etiquetteThe practice of civility and the willingness to be fully present are fundamental to ministry. Pleasesee this course as an opportunity to practice these virtues by giving your full attention to yourclassmates and professor. Especially important is how one interacts with class participants onissues on which there is difference of opinion. An aspect of Christian critical thinking is to listen,understand, and respond with respect based on one’s own well thought out position.C. Assignments/Assessment of Student Learning1. Reading/viewing quizzes/questions. Each week read all the textbook assignments assignedfor that week and watch the assigned videos. There will be a quiz over all the following materialwhich is assigned for each particular week: (1) DOTP, (2) DOTHB, (3) Rasmussen, and (4)weekly videos (NOTE: Gorman and McMickle are not included in this assignment). These couldinclude questions in the form of: true/false, matching, short answer, essay. They will only beaccessible once and only for a limited time period, so the assigned study must precede taking thequiz. Some videos will have a study question/assignment rather than appearing in the quiz. Dueweekly.2. Discussions. Each week will have a study question or prompt based on the material of theweek. They will be the subject of weekly Zoom meetings on Thursdays between 7:30 – 8:30p.m. [For those unable to attend at the scheduled time, alternative discussion arrangements canbe made.] Due weekly.3. Davis interaction. For each portion of the Davis textbook as set out in the Course Schedule,write an interaction with her material. Each interaction will be a ½ to ¾ page long and containeach of the following 4 elements: (1) a heading indicating the student’s name plus showing thepage numbers of the section under discussion; (2) a 2-3 sentence summary of the section; (3)separate discussions on two points which you found particularly intriguing or problematic,explaining why you found each one so; (4) how the section is applicable in your life and/orministry. Due weekly (or at times two per week).4. Issues paper. Note: you will probably need to schedule a visit to a library with substantialholdings in biblical resources to complete this assignment, or request materials to be sent to youin advance. Plan ahead. Due July 25.Write a 5-7 page paper (double spaced) arising from a topic found in one of the chaptersassigned from the dictionaries, the Rasmussen textbook, the videos, or the Davis textbook whichpiques your interest. This allows you to dig deeper into a topic, evaluating various optionsconcerning how the issue has been addressed by others (the best topic papers look at an issueconcerning which there is some debate, not one in which everyone is agreed), and come to yourown conclusion as the best understanding of the issue based on your own research and criticalthinking. The instructor is willing to evaluate your proposed topic, possibly providing somebibliographic suggestions, if you ask far enough in advance of the due date for the paper.a. Spend up to two pages summarizing what the textbook/video conveys concerning thetopic you have chosen. Title that section “Summary of textbook content”.b. Then dig deeper into some aspect introduced there, not just repeating what you found forthe first paper section above. Research at least two or three additional scholarly resourcesrelated to the issue you choose (list these resources in your footnotes, properly formatted).16

Note: these should be from specialized resources. Here are some sources that will bedeemed insufficient (i.e., inadequate) for this assignment: A study BibleA one-volume Bible dictionaryAn introduction to the Old Testament.General encyclopediasGeneralist (insubstantial) web resourcesIn contrast, here are some resources that would be suitable: Journal articles that focus on your topic, found in scholarly journals (A list ofapproved journals is posted under ‘Writing Resources’). Articles found in multiple-volume theological/biblical dictionaries (such as IVPDictionary of the OT series; Anchor Bible Dictionary) Monographs (single-volume works on a narrow topic) addressing the area you arestudying Articles in specialized encyclopedias like Encyclopedia JudaicaWhat about using solid, recent commentaries? If your topic is thoroughly discussed (not brieflycommented on in passing) then a commentary can serve as one of the resources for thisassignment. IF IN DOUBT, CHECK WITH THE INSTRUCTOR.5. Short papers. A series of short papers will apply components of the exegetical method onseveral different passages. They provide experience in some of the steps necessary to do athorough analysis of a text but will not result in a complete exegesis of any passage. Detailsconcerning each paper are in Appendix 1 below (pp. 16- ), with further detail presented in videosavailable in BlackBoard under ‘Writing Resources’. The student is responsible for being familiarwith the procedures and results discussed in each of these resources. You will also find usefulassistance with the Gorman and/or McMickle textbooks. Gorman has a very useful bibliographyand example papers.A. Self-reflection and passage delimitation (Boundaries and me). Who weare impacts how we approach a text. Reflect on your personal history and its potentialimpact on your reading. Also determine what a passage says, and how one knowswhere it begins and ends. See Appendix 1 and relevant video(s). Due May 30.B. Literary Structure and Devices. A writer employs numerous literarydevices to bring about her point and to move the audience in some direction. Discussthe devices used in your passage and indicate what the author is trying to do in thetext (the main thrust). See Appendix 1 and relevant video(s). Due June 20.C. Historical Background. A discussion of the historical, social, economic,and cultural background necessary to understand the world presented by the passage,with a select bibliography of at least five references used to explain these items. SeeAppendix 1 and relevant video(s). Due July 11.D. Interpretive questions. There are elements of a passage which must beunderstood clearly in order to understand the passage itself. What are these, and whatdo they mean? See Appendix 1 and relevant video(s). Due August 1.E. Theological Reflection and Application. A reflection on a theologicalperspective, claim, or question you see the passage addressing and on the way the16

passage speaks to contemporary Christian belief and practice. See Appendix 1 andrelevant video(s). Due August 15.Writing MattersPapers are to be descriptive and analytical, exhibit clear organization of thought, and give properattention to style and grammar. Correct documentation of sources must be followed, as specifiedin the ATS Writing Handbook [A resource sheet is provided under “Writing Resources”]. Papersare to be typed and doubled-spaced with one-inch margins and with font set at 12-point TimesNew Roman.Evaluation of papers will be based on the depth of critical interaction with the topic,coherence and organization of ideas, clarity of writing, and informed incorporation of secondarymaterials. Papers may receive a reduction in grade if: The paper is less than or more than the assigned limits (one grade reduction per page) The paper is submitted after the due date (2% grade reduction per day). The paper does not follow the correct format for documenting sources (up to one gradereduction).SubmissionsAll written work is to be uploaded to the appropriate folder on the course Blackboard site.NOTE: No written work will be accepted for a grade after August 27, 2022. The final coursegrade will be based on the material submitted by then.D. Calculation of Grade and Connection of Learning OutcomesAssignmentsLearning OutcomesBoundaries and MeLiterary Devices and PurposeHistorical BackgroundInterpretive QuestionsTheological ReflectionIssues PaperDavis interactionsQuizzes and queriesDiscussions1a1b1c1b1a1a, b, c1b, c1c, 1d1cPercent of FinalGrade5%10%10%10%10%15%10%20%10%IV. Course ScheduleWeek1End Date:midnight ofLecture/TopicAssignmentsMay 16Three Biblical WorldsGenesis 1-11Week 1 videosDavis 1–8DOTP: “Adam”; “Eve”Rasmussen: chapters 1-316

QuizDiscussion 1 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 5/12]2May 23Hebrew NarrativeGenesis 1-11Week 2 videosDavis 8–14Rasmussen: chapters 4-5DOTP: “Authorship of the Pentateuch”;“Source Criticism”QuizDiscussion 2 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 5/19]3May 30The Primeval HistoryGenesis 12-36Week 3 videosDavis 15–26Rasmussen: chapter 6DOTP: “Cosmology”; extra credit:“Creation”QuizBoundaries and me paper [Deuteronomy22:28-29]Discussion 3 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 5/26]4June 6The Patriarchs, Matriarchs,and JosephGenesis 37-50Week 4 videosDavis 27–39Rasmussen: chapter 7DOTP: “Abraham”; “Promises, Divine”QuizDiscussion 4 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 6/2]5June 13The Exodus from EgyptExodus 1-15Week 5 videosDavis 40–49DOTP: “Exodus, Date of”; extra credit:“Egypt, Egyptians”QuizDiscussion 5 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 6/9]6June 20The Covenant at SinaiExodus 16-24Week 6 videosDavis 50–61DOTP: “Covenant”; extra credit:“Decalogue”QuizDiscussion 6 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 6/16]Literary Devices and Purpose Paper[Exodus 15:1-21]16

7June 27LeviticusExodus 25-40; Leviticus 1-27Week 7 videosDavis 62–71Davis 72–81Rasmussen: chapter 8DOTP: “Holy and Holiness, Clean andUnclean”; “Sacrifices and Offerings”,sections 2 and 3QuizDiscussion 7 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 6/23]8July 4NumbersNumbers 1-36Week 8 videosDavis 82–94Davis 95–104DOTP: “Law”, “Sabbath, Sabbatical Year,Jubilee”; extra credit: “Wilderness, Desert”QuizDiscussion 8 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 6/30]9July 11Deuteronomy and theDeuteronomistsDeuteronomy 1-34Week 9 videosDavis 105–116Davis 117–128DOTP: “Deuteronomy, Book of”;“Theology of the Pentateuch”QuizDiscussion 9 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 7/7]Historical Background Paper [Genesis19:1-13]10July 18JoshuaJoshua 1-24Week 10 videosDavis 129–143Davis 144–147Rasmussen: chapter 9DOTHB: “Joshua” [not “Joshua, Book of”];“Narrative Art of Israel’s Historians”; extracredit: “Historiography, Old Testament”QuizDiscussion 10 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 7/13]11July 25JudgesJudges 1-21Week 11 videosDavis 148–163DOTHB: “Canaan, Canaanites”; “Judges”;extra credit: “Judges, Book of”16

QuizDiscussion 11 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 7/20]Issues Paper12August 11 Samuel1 Samuel 1-31Week 12 videosDavis [173–174, read but no write], 175–184Rasmussen: chapter 10DOTHB: “Kings and Kingship”;“Propaganda”QuizDiscussion 12 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 7/27]Interpretive questions paper [1 Samuel13-15]13August 82 Samuel2 Samuel 1-24Week 13 videosDavis 185–197DOTHB: “David”, “Davidic Covenant”;“Royal Family”QuizDiscussion 13 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 8/4]14August 151 Kings1 Kings 1-22Week 14 videosDavis 198–208Davis 209–219Rasmussen: chapter 11-12DOTHB: “Oral Tradition and WrittenTradition”; “Sources, References to”;“Scribes and Schools”QuizDiscussion 14 [Zoom 7:30-8:30, 8/11]Theological Reflection paper [1 Samuel 8]15August 222 Kings2 Kings 1-25Week 15 videosDavis 246–255Rasmussen: chapters 13-14DOTHB: “Assyria, Assyrians”; “Babylonia,Babylonians”; “Non-Israelite WrittenSources: Assyrian” and “Non-IsraeliteWritten Sources: Babylonian”Quiz16

V. Recommendations for Lifelong Learning1. Purchase relevant modules from Logos Bible Software.2. Utilize your alumni access to the Ashland Seminary Library Page for online e-book resourcesand journal articles through the ATLA Serials and Academic Search Complete databases.3. Regularly listen to a podcast or watch an online video featuring a lecture or discussion bybiblical scholars on topics of interest. An excellent one on the ongoing study of the Bible ingeneral is by Craig Keener. See particularly the Bible Odyssey site hosted by the Society ofBiblical Literature at Bible Odyssey.VI. Seminary GuidelinesATS Academic Integrity PolicyAshland Theological Seminary expects each student to uphold the Seminary’s core value ofacademic excellence by contributing to an environment that is both challenging and supportive.In such an environment a student will neither seek nor offer improper assistance. All studentshave an obligation to be forthright in their academic endeavors and to respect ethical standards.The work that one submits for academic evaluation must be one’s own, unless an instructorexpressly permits certain types of collaboration. Academic integrity requires that each studentwill use one’s own capabilities to achieve one’s fullest potential and will neither offer nor acceptaid that is not in keeping with regularly accepted standards of academic integrity. Failure toconform to this conduct shall constitute academic dishonesty. The full Academic Integrity Policystatement may be found in the Student Handbook.ATS Grading ScaleGradeAQuality4.0Percent97-100AB B3.73.33.092-9689-9186-88B-2.783-85C C2.32.080-8277-79CD rior achievement of course objectives, diligence andoriginality, high degree of freedom from error, outstandingevidence of ability to utilize course knowledge, initiativeexpressed in preparing and completing assignments, positivecontributions verbalized in class.Good work submitted, commendable achievement of courseobjectives, some aspects of the course met with excellence,substantial evidence of ability to utilize course material,positive contributions verbalized in class, consistency andthoroughness of work completed.Acceptable work completed, satisfactory achievement ofcourse objectives, demonstrating at least some ability to utilizecourse knowledge, satisfactory class contribution.Passing but minimal work, marginal achievement of courseobjectives, poor performance in comprehension of worksubmitted, inadequate class contributions.16

F0.0Below 65Unacceptable work resulting in failure to receive class credit,inadequacy of work submitted or of performance andattendance in class.AttendanceAccording to the Student Handbook, attendance at all class sessions is expected, unless theprofessor has been notified in advance and has approved the absence. Students should be on timeand should stay through the duration of all classes. Any student missing more than six classhours will be required to do additional work, receive a lower grade, audit or withdraw from theclass, or be penalized otherwise at the discretion of the professor.Attendance Reporting:Students are required to participate in a course related activity in the first and third weeks of thecourse. Students may be administratively withdrawn from the course and/or may lose financialaid benefits if a qualifying activity has not occurred between the student and the course work orfaculty within the first three days of the course. Simply logging into a course online via theLearning Management System (LMS) is not considered a qualifying activity.Student non-participation during the first 8 days of a course may initiate the administrativecourse withdrawal process. Student non-participation, mid-course, for 14 consecutive days mayalso initiate the administrative course withdrawal process.According to policies and procedures set forth by Ashland University’s Department forVeterans’ Services, AU will grant any service member requiring more than a 30-day leave arelease from coursework. Contact the Office of Veterans’ Services for more informationregarding this process.Accessibility Resources and AccommodationsIt is Ashland University’s goal that learning experiences be as accessible as possible. If youanticipate or experience physical or academic barriers based on a disability, please contact theStudent Accessibility Center at 419-289-5904, or send an email to [email protected] TheStudent Accessibility Center office and the course instructor will work together in order toestablish accommodations and to meet your learning needs.Ashland Multiliteracy Center (AMuLit Center)The AMuLit Center can help you brainstorm, draft, and revise your writing assignments in yourgraduate Seminary classes. Masters and doctoral qualified consultants can advise you online orin person. For more information click here. Receive one-on-one feedback from an AMuLit Center graduate consultant on any projectthat involves communication - essays, speeches, group presentations, lab reports, posterpresentations, and much more! Our default type of appointment for graduate students is conducted asynchronously viaemail. In other words, after you make an appointment through our online scheduler(WCOnline), you attach a draft to the appointment, then within 48 hours of the scheduledappointment, one of our consultants reviews your paper and emails you feedback. Wealso offer synchronous (live) appointments via Zoom by request.16

To schedule an asynchronous email appointment, go to will need to register for an account the first time you use the scheduler). To schedule a synchronous (live) Zoom appointment, please email us [email protected] our graduate services webpage for more information ts/graduate-writing-consultationVII. Select BibliographyBrown, Jeannine K. Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics: Scripture as Communication. GrandRapids, Mi.: Baker Academic, 2007.Brown, William P. A Handbook to Old Testament Exegesis. Louisville: Westminster John Knox,2017. ISBN: 978-0-664-25993-8.Fretheim, Terence E. The Pentateuch. Interpreting Biblical Texts. Nashville: Abingdon, 1996.Goldingay, J. Old Testament Theology. 3 vols. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2003.Kibbe, Michael. From Topic to Thesis: A Guide to Theological Research. Downers Grove, IL:InterVarsity, 2016. ISBN 978-0-8308-5131-7King, Philip J., and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. Louisville, Kentucky:Westminster John Knox, 2001.Nelson, Richard D. The Historical Books. Interpreting Biblical Texts. Nashville: Abingdon,1998.Newsom, Carol A. et al., eds. Women’s Bible Commentary. 3rd ed. Revised and Updated.Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2012.Patte, Daniel. Global Bible Commentary: Biblical Interpretation from Worldwide Perspectives.Nashville: Abingdon, 2004.Richter, S. L. The Epic of Eden: A Christian Entry into the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI:Baker Academic, 2008.Sugirtharaja, R. S., ed. Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World.Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2006. (Especially articles in Part Three: ManyReadings: Exodus, pp. 205-278.)Walsh, Jerome T. Old Testament Narrative: A Guide to Interpretation. Westminster John Knox,2009Weems, Renita. Just a Sister Away: A Womanist Vision of Women’s Relationships in the Bible.Philadelphia: Innisfree, 1988. ISBN: 978-0931055522Yee, Gale, Hugh R. Page, Jr. and Matthew J. M. Coomber, eds. Fortress Commentary on theBible: Old Testament and Apocrypha. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2014. 978-0800699161Appendix 1: Instructions for Exegesis Short PapersDo not use separate title page with any of the following. Label each exercise at the top of thefirst page with your name, date, and the assignment number, title, scripture passage, and Englishversion you are using, as shown here:J.Q. StudentJuly 15, 2057Short Paper # 1, Recognizing Boundaries (Exod. 15:22-27; NRSV)16

Read instructions and examples carefully. Provide sub-headings for each assignment section,and be sure to address only the issues asked for in each section. Check the following syllabuspage to see if instructions may continue there. There are videos posted under ‘WritingResources’ which provide additional assistance. The Gorman/McMickle references address someof the issues of each paper.Exegetical skilland correspondingquestionSpecific instructions1. Recognizingboundaries of apassage; youand the passageIntroduce yourself, reflectingon how your backgroundmight impact yourinterpretation of the passage.Who am I?What is thepassage about?Where should thispassage begin andend?Resources:McMickle chapter2Gorman, pp. 3538, 63–68, 195–202Writing ResourcesvideosExample passageExample focalpassage: Gen. 22Who and why? I am awhite, middle-agedmale who wentRead over these verses. Give through bankruptcya summary of what is found in and divorce, whichyour focal passage.might affect myunderstanding of itThen read material before and since after these verses. AskSummary of focalyourself, “Based on whatpassage: Nearprecedes and follows thesesacrifice of Isaac.verses, do these verses form asomewhat well-delimitedPreceding materialsection, or should the(upper boundary):boundaries for this section be Gen. 21:22-34 isplaced at some other verses?” different from thefocal passage since itCaution: do not simply relydeals with Abraham’son paragraph divisions andcovenant withtitles found in your Bible. Do Abimelech.your own thinking.Succeeding material(lower boundary):The account of Isaac’snear-sacrifice actuallystops in v. 19. AtGen. 22:20 therebegins a listing ofNahor’s children(brother of Abraham),lasting through Gen.22:24. So the lowerboundary for the near16Assignmentpassage(s)in which toapply thisskillDeut 22:2829Grading rubricBe sure to follow allinstructions, not simplythe bulleted items below.½ page, double spaced –who am I: reflect on yourown personalbackground (race,gender, socio-economicstatus, religious/theological upbringing,etc.) and how this mightaffect your interpretationof the text½ page, double spacedfor each: how do youdetermine that thepassage is a selfcontained unit, with aclear beginning (1/2page) and end (1/2page)?1 paragraph: Give asummary of what iscontained in the focalpassage.75 points possible 10 pts. summary 20 pts.Upper/beginningboundary explanation 20 pts. Lower/endingboundary explanation 25 pts. personalreflection

sacrifice of Isaacshould be set at 22:19.2. RecognizingList in bold font at least fiveIn Ps. 23:1 the poetExod. 15:1literary devices specific literary devices atemploys a metaphor,21and author’swork in this passage,equating the LORDpurposeidentifying each device. After with a shepherd.each device, briefly assess–in Significance: WithoutHow are literaryyour opinion—howthis device, thedevices helping to significant is the contribution message would beadvance theof that device for propellingflatter (losingmessage of thisthe message of this passage.imaginative analogy),passage? What is(A helpful way to assessand would becomethe author doing in significance of a device is tomore verbosethe passage?ask yourself, “If the author(requiring articulationResources:had not employed this device of a long list of traitsGorman, pp. 74–[i.e., if the author hadwhich instead are81, 83–100, 202–conveyed the same contentsubsumed in205, 207–209but had done so in a bald,“shepherd”).McMickle, chapter straightforward fashion3without the help of thisThe author seems toWriting Resources device], what would havebe providing comfortvideosbeen lost?).for From your own reading, whatdoes the author seem to bedoing in writing the passage(i.e., what is the thrust of thepassage)?3. ExploringAfter reading the focalExample passage: “A Genesishistoricalpassage, list five elementsfalse balance is an19:1-13background of a found in the passage itself that abomination to thepassagecontribute to its historicalLord, but a justcontext. These may includeweight is His delight”What information(but are not limited to):(Prov. 11:1, NASB).concerningcustoms, events, government,historical setting is worldview, geography,Historical element:vital forclimate, employment. WhatBalances were widelyunderstanding the do each of these elementsused for fair measurepassage?mean in the society of theboth of consumablesResources:time? Usually understandingand for preciousGorman, pp. 69–of these elements arises from metals. Coins not74, 80–81, 205–secondary sourcesrequiring weighing207(commentaries, Bibledid not appear untilMcMickle chapter dictionaries) which willthe mid-7th century.5increase your awareness ofWriting Resources ancient history. Insight alsoImportancevideoswill come from the writings(negative): If16DUE MAY 301-2 pages, double spaced125 points possible 10 pts. each for 5substantial devices 10 pts. each for 5effective statementsof significance 25 pts. Fordetermining

Email: Contact only through Blackboard Please Note: This course utilizes an online component (Blackboard) as a medium for assignment submission and to provide teaching material. Access to a reliable computer and the internet . the Rasmussen textbook, the videos, or the Davis textbook whic