Landmarks Preservation CommissionJune 25 , 1996, Designation List 273LP-1905BROOKLYN TRUST COMPANY (now Chemical Bank) BUILDING, 177-179 MontagueStreet and 134-138 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn. Built 1913-16; architects York & Sawyer.Landmark Site: Borough of Brooklyn Tax Map Block 244, Lot 17.On June 15, 1993 , the Landmarks Preservation Commission held a public hearing on the proposeddesignation as a Landmark of the Brooklyn Trust Company (now Chemical Bank) Building and theproposed designation of the related landmark site (Item No. 1). The hearing had been duly advertisedin accordance with the provisions of law . A representative of the owner expressed uncertainty about theproposed designation, and requested that the hearing be continued to a later date. The hearing wascontinued on September 21, 1993 (Item No. 1). A total of two witnesses , including a representative ofthe Brooklyn Heights Association , spoke in favor of designation at the two public hearings . There wereno speakers in opposition to designation .SummaryThe Brooklyn Trust Company building(now a branch of Chemical Bank), designedby the prominent firm of York & Sawyer, atalented , prolific, and versatile team, wasconstructed in 1913-16 in a style modeledafter the palazzi of the sixteenth-centuryItalian High Renaissance. The building ,gracefully adapted to the imagery andfunctions of American banking in the earlytwentieth century, continues to project animage of tradition , stability, and security .Although relatively small , the building ismonumentallyscaledandbeautifullyproportioned , executed in fine materials bysuperb craftsmen . Located near BrooklynBorough Hall (originally City Hall) and atthe edge of Brooklyn Heights , this is thefinest of the buildings on the MontagueStreet block known as "Bank Row."The Brooklyn Trust Company played animportant historic role in Brooklyn, from itsfounding during the aftermath of the CivilWar until its consolidation with larger banksbeginning in the mid-twentieth century. Itsfounders ,subsequenttrustees ,andadministrators were notable Brooklynites ,committed not only to fiduciary but also tocommunity responsibility.Today , thelargely-intact building is a reminder of the importance of the institution in the Brooklyn community.Alterations have been minimal and have been carried out with respect for the original fabric anddesign .

it was known for its conservative investments, andwhile offering its clients the full services of acommercial bank, it apparently continued tospecialize in estate and trust management. 6The new bank opened for business in June of1868, with Ethelbert S. Mills as president.Records of its earliest years reflect a soundinvestment and return policy. The Brooklyn TrustCompany first leased offices at the corner of Courtand Joralemon Streets .In 1873 the bankpurchased its present corner site on Montague. Atthe time, 177 Montague Street was occupied by thelarge mansard-roofed house with gardens, datingfrom the 1850s, built for George Taylor, a NewYork lawyer and U.S. Congressman. Convertedand gradually enlarged, it was to be the bank'sheadquarters for forty years . With the Panic of1873, President Mills apparently believed the bankin danger of collapse, and although never publiclyaccused of mismanagement, he committed suicide. 7After two months of inquiries and investigations ,the bank proved solvent, and Ripley Ropes waselected Mill's successor. 8 From this time forwardthe Brooklyn Trust Company enjoyed steadygrowth and an ever-increasing reputation.By1890 it could be characterized as " unquestionablythe leading financial corporation of this city. " 9After Ropes' presidency, the Brooklyn TrustCompany was headed by Christian S. Christensenfrom 1890 to 1900 and by Theodore S. Millerfrom 1900 to 1913 . In the summer of 1913 EdwinP. Maynard succeeded him . The first two branchesof many to come were opened , one at BedfordA venue and Fulton Street (1903), the other inManhattan's financial district, at Wall Street andBroadway (1907) . In January of 1913 the LongIsland Loan and Trust Company merged with theBrooklyn Trust. By this time the bank's capitalhad increased from the original 150,000 to 1,500,000.The block of Montague Street on whichBrooklyn Trust was located had becomeincreasingly commercial. The nine-story RealEstate Exchange (altered) had been built in 1890 at189-191 Montague.When use of the ArtAssociation building declined, its lower floorswere leased to the Peoples Trust Company bank(from 1891).In 1896, the Mechanics Bankerected a new ten-story office building on itsoriginal site. The site of the Brooklyn Academyof Music was redeveloped by banking and titlecompanies, including the ten-story Lawyers TitleDESCRIPTION AND ANALYSISHistory of the Site 1In the early nineteenth century, the site of theBrooklyn Trust Company building on MontagueStreet between Court and Clinton Streets, was partof the estate of Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, one of theoriginal developers of Brooklyn Heights as anelegant residential community. 2 The street wasnamed for a Pierrepont cousin, Lady MaryWortley Montagu (sic), an English author; the Jotson the new block were sold by Pierrepont's heirs,and in the 1850s the first buildings were erected,among them a mansion for George Taylor.The completion of Brooklyn's new City Hallin 1849 set the stage for the development ofMontague Street between Court and Clinton -with the residential community of BrooklynHeights to the west, and the civic center, laterDowntown Brooklyn, to the east. Three majorcultural institutitons decided to erect buildings onthis relatively undeveloped Montague Street block :the Brooklyn Academy of Music (Leopold Eidlitz,1860) and the Brooklyn Art Association (J.C.Cady, 1872) on the south side; and the MercantileLibrary (P.B. Wight, 1869) on the north. As earlyas 1857, the Mechanics Bank had erected abuilding at the corner of Montague and Fulton(now Cadman Plaza West) Streets. Banks, lawfirms , title insurance and real estates companiesclustered around City Hall . In 1873, the BrooklynTrust Company converted the Taylor mansion onMontague Street as its headquarters .History of the Brooklyn Trust Company3The Brooklyn Trust Company was founded onApril 14, 1866, by a New York State LegislativeCharter. In the wake of the Civil War, bankingthroughout the country was in a state of chaos , andmeasures such as the 1865 Congressional BankingAct were intended to stabilize the nationaleconomy. The Brooklyn Trust Company wasestablished "in a response to an urgent demand inBrooklyn for a strong banking institution whichshould act as executor or trustee" (a novelty inthose days). 4 Presumably this "urgent demand"was the tragic result of war casualties and themany widows and children who found themselvesin need of financial guidance. The founders of thebank were highly prominent and sociallyresponsible Brooklynites -- not only trustees, butalso trustworthy members of the community. 5 Asthe Brooklyn Trust Company grew over the years,2

image; this could be accomplished througharchitecture -- a physical , tangible statement offiduciary strength -- the bank building as a" modern strongbox ."Appropriate, historicarchitectural styles served to enhance the image.This attitude toward the architecture of bankingwas in step with two major architectural currentsof the time -- the City Beautiful movement andAcademic Classicism -- both of which had arisenin the wake of the Chicago World's ColumbianExposition of 1893 . One of the first truly grandneo-classical banks spawned by these movementswas the Bowery Savings Bank (1894, McKim ,Mead & White) . (Its construction was supervisedby one of the architects of the Brooklyn TrustCompany building, Edward York) . The design ,with a colossal Corinthian order and a pedimentedtemple front recalled ancient Roman precedents .Bank design of the period made intentionalallusions to Roman temples and also to Greektreasury buildings. They may also have beendesigned with reference to older, long-establishedAmerican banks , whose buildings of the earlynineteenth century were designed in the GreekRevival style. This Greco-Roman neo-classicalstyle for banks was to remain predominant for thefollowing three decades . The architects of theBrooklyn Trust Company employed variants of theneo-classical style for the majority of their manybanking commissions ,beginning with the temple-fronted Franklin SavingsBank of 1899. For the Brooklyn Trust Companybuilding York & Sawyer suggested an alternativeneo-classical style, based upon Italian Renaissanceprototypes . (This related style is discussed below.)Insurance Company building (Helmle, Huberty &Hudswell ,extent) ,188-190Montague.Interspersed with these new tall office buildingswere a series of low, predominantly two- or threestory neo-classical bank and insurance companybuildings , constructed in the early 1900s, whichled this block to be dubbed "Bank Row."It was against this backdrop that the officers ofthe Brooklyn Trust Company decided in 1913 todemolish their old headquarters and erect a newand larger, up-to-date building. They acquired theproperty of the Brooklyn Club, behind and to thenorth , thus consolidating a site along the entireClinton Street blockfront, between Montague andPierrepont Streets . Construction of the newbuilding was carried on in two separate campaigns ,beginning at the north . While the headquarters inthe old Taylor mansion remained open forbusiness , the Brooklyn Club building was razed ,and the new section of the building completed inthe late summer of 1915 . The bank then switchedits operations to the new portion of the building,while the second , Montague Street section wasbuilt on the site of the old headquarters . Theentire new structure was officially opened inSeptember of 1916. 10 The design , with twoimposing entrances, north and south , seems toreflect its position in the Brooklyn bankingcommunity of the time -- one door leading to theresidential community of private clients inBrooklyn Heights , the other directed to thefinancial and public center of DowntownBrooklyn .Bank Buildings and Architectural Imagery 11In the years following the Civil War, whenNew York's banks were proliferating at a rapidrate, the majority of banking institutions cateringto private clients -- such as savings and trustcompanies -- were housed in converted residencesor office buildings, rather than in buildingsdesigned specifically for their needs . Corner s, and thus desirable . The convertedTaylor mansion fit this pattern. The building wassubstantial, reassuring, convenient yet discreet; itsarchitectural style did not proclaim its function. 12Some twenty years later, a new trend in bankdesign for savings and trust companies began toemerge. Volatile economic conditions led bankofficers to feel a need to reassure private investorsof their bank ' s stability and security . One way ofreinforcing confidence was through a strong publicYork & Sawyer, Architects 13York & Sawyer was one of the mostprominent and prolific New York architecturalfirms during the first three decades of the twentiethcentury . Designing in the Academic Classictradition, they specialized in educationalinstitutions , hospitals , office buildings , and mostimportantlybankbuildings ,rece1vmgapproximately fifty such commissions during thearchitects' long association . With the death ofEdward York in 1928, the "golden age" of thefirm came to an end, although it continued toflourish and produce work of serious merit.The York & Sawyer partnership was formedin 1898 by two men who had both enjoyed aneducation and apprenticeship that would have beenenvied by virtually any aspiring American architect3

of the later nineteenth century. Edward PalmerYo;k (1865-1928) first studied architecture atCornell University and in 1890 entered the officesof the prestigious firm, McKim, Mead & White,serving as assistant to the most flamboyant, andmost talented partner, Stanford White. PhilipSawyer (1868-1949) first trained in civilengineering and then attended ColumbiaUniversity's Architectural School.He thenworked briefly, in 1891, for McKim, Mead &White (when he must have first encountered hisfuture partner) and then headed off to Paris to theEcole des Beaux-Arts -- at the time considered anessential experience for any young architect whocould possibly afford it. He traveled on theContinent, studying and sketching architecturalmonuments, especially those of classical antiquity .By 1894, he had returned to New York andrejoined McKim , Mead & White.At this time, McKim, Mead & White was atits zenith. Having just participated in the ChicagoWorld's Columbian Exposition of 1893, they hadbecome the most famous and most influentialproponents of the Classical Revival style -- termedby many later architectural writers and historiansthe Academic Classic style. Sawyer was later toassess his training at McKim, Mead & White inthe 1890s as the best in America, in terms ofplanning, design and construction , experience andcntic1sm. Sawyer worked at a drafting table;York , at a desk. 14 Perhap the two young menrecognized that the division of duties which theyhad witnessed first-hand -- White tended to dealwith design, Mead with client relations and projectmanagement -- was one that would serve themequally well.Certainly, they seem to haveemulated these separate roles when they embarkedon their own partnership in 1898. York was, inthe broadest sense, the businessman ; Sawyer, thedesigner; yet each seem to have contributed to theother's field of expertise. 15The commission for the Franklin Savings Bank(1899, West 42nd Street and Eighth Avenue,demolished) inaugurated the firm's long associationwith bank design. York may have used friendlyinfluence and contacts from his days at McKim,Mead & White to garner the firm's initial bankcomm1ss1ons. For example, Governor Levi P.Morton, who recommended the firm to theFranklin Savings Bank, was a client of McKim,Mead & White.By 1909 Sawyer had beenappointed an architectural consultant to the U.S.Treasury Department, and supervised therebuilding of the Treasury in Washington, D.C .,as well as the construction of subtreasuries in otherc1t1es. In 1911 he was sent to Europe by thedepartment with letters . of introduction to bankofficers at the federal banks of England, Italy, andGermany in order to study their methods ofhandling and storing money. By this time the firmhad designed a number of banks. 16Suchcredentials could hardly have failed to impress theBrooklyn Trust Company's officers.York & Sawyer were experts of AcademicClassicism, the favored style for banks. As HenryHope Reed , a longtime champion of the style hasnoted, the firm had an "unusual grasp of themonumental," "the striking visual effect, " and thehandling of rustication -- qualities all fully realizedin the Brooklyn Trust Company . 17Design of the Brooklyn Trust Company BuildingIn 1913, when the officers of the BrooklynTrust Company commissioned York & Sawyer toreplace their outmoded building with newheadquarters , the architects evidently suggested abuilding modeled after an Italian High Renaissancepa/azzo. The style, the building type, and thearchitectural symbolism were all appropriate to abank building; the prosperity and artistic wealth ofthe Italian Renaissance was to a large extent basedon huge banking fortunes -- the Florentine houseof the Medici perhaps the best known -- and manygreat banks were housed in palazzi. Verona wasanother Italian city of great financial andcommercial prosperity during the Renaissance, andit was to the architecture of the High RenaissanceVeronese architect Michele Sanmicheli (1484/51559) that York & Sawyer turned for inspiration . 18Sanmicheli's use of rusticated stone, especiallyin city gates and pal lzzi, may have been of specialinterest to Sawyer -- he himself was to becharacterized as a "master of rustication" -- andsuch buildings as the Palazzo Bevilacqua may havebeen influential.Another prototype for theBrooklyn Trust Company building is Palazzzodella Gran Guardia in Verona; the Clinton Streetelevation of the bank bears the greatestsimilarity. 19The exterior of the Brooklyn Trust Companycreates a striking and impressive appearance on thestreet, while providing a suitable introduction tothe serious business of banking. In the hands ofsuch versatile and talented architects as York andSawyer, the Academic Classic style is not merelya regrouping of historic, stylistic, and symbolic4

contains scrolled acanthus rinceau.x with birds ,flowers and animals, emerging at each side fromclassical urns flanked by centaur-like youths . Thestyle and motifs derive from Roman Imperial art,rediscovered during the Italian Renaissance. 23 Thisenframement is capped by a Junette with carvedacanthus consoles flanking a rectangular plaqueinscribed "ERECTED MCMXV" [1915] andsurmounted by an American eagle withoutstretched wings . A stone grille with alternatingclassical medallions and urns fills the Junette toeach side.Imposing, heavy wrought-iron double-heightdoors, or gates, of foliate, heart-shaped grilleworkshield the bronze and glass inner doors. On stonebases to each side of the entrance steps are tall ,wrought-iron torcheres . (Fig. 2) These elegantlamp posts -- again stylistically derived fromRenaissance sources -- have four winged andhorned, mythological lions supporting an uppertier of tortoises; this base supports a columnornamented by leaves and birds , springing from abase of acanthus, fruit , flowers , and volutes . Asingle globe light tops each torchere.At the piano nobile (Fig . 3), pairedrectangular windows with two-over-two sash atboth the fourth and fifth stories are recessed inthree bays and linked by the double-heightCorinthian colonnade. Stone balustrades appearbeneath the fourth-story windows , and dark redmarble panels separate the windows of the twostories. Above the fifth story is a frieze of simplesquare panels and relief panels with flanking urns.These are inscribed "BREUCKL YN-NEW LOTSRED HOOK" at the east and "GREENPOINTFLATBUSH-WALLABOUT" at the west; allsections of Brooklyn served by the Brooklyn TrustCompany. A dentilled cornice and lion-headedwaterspouts topped by the scalloped profile ofroof tiles completes the elevation .references, but also an entirely contemporaryexpression -- the Brooklyn Trust Companybuilding is a quintessential image of its place, itstime, and its function.DescriptionThis very handsome neo-Italian Renaissancestyle building projects an image of stability, pride,and tradition -- all appropriate to a bankinginstitution . It occupies a long and narrow cornersite bounded by Montague Street at the south ,Clinton Street at the west, and Pierrepont Streetat the north. The east elevation abuts anotherbank building (originally Peoples Trust, now abranch of Citibank), yet the Brooklyn Trust stillgives the impression of a discrete urban palaz.zo ,well-proportioned and finely crafted .It iscomposed in two sections . Therusticated,vermiculated limestone base is articulated by adouble-height arcade and mezzanine levei. 20 Theupper section, or piano nobile, is of smooth-facedlimestone with a double-height colonnade in theCorinthian order, with alternating engagedcolumns and pilasters on shallow piers. The northand south ends of the building have monumentalarched entrances, while the long west elevation ispunctuated by seven arched windows. The northelevation has a five-story , three-bay annex faced inrusticated limestone. The water table and stairwayat the south are of Maine pink granite.21 Theroofing is of Ohio tile. The building is of modernsteel-frame construction .Montague Street facade (Fig. 1)The central round-arched main entrance isrecessed and flanked by single rectangularwindows covered by protective metal grillesinspired by Italian Renaissance prototypes. Singlesmall square deeply-recessed windows (the grillesnow removed) appear above these larger windowsat the mezzanine level. All four windows havekeystone lintels. Flagpoles project from the lintelsat the mezzanine level. At the keystone of thearched entrance is a carved beribboned cartouchewith a shield emblazoned with an eagle in profile,and in Roman numerals , the dates 1866 and 1915.Above the shield are crossed keys and a wingedhelmet. 22The entrance, approached by a flight of steps ,is of special note, with an enframement of a finegrained limestone, known as Napoleon Gray ,quarried in Missouri. The design, "after an Italianmodeller's cast" by the firm of Donnolly & Ricci,Pierrepont Street elevation (Fig. 4)The secondary entrance elevation is virtuallya mirror image of the Montague Street facade.(Fig . 5) There are a few differences; theentranceway is at street level, and the NapoleonGray limestone enframement relief here emergeson each side from a calyx of acanthus leaves . Aflagpole projects above the cartouche. A pair ofwrought-iron octagonal lanterns are affixed to thewalls flanking the entrance, and are composed ofspiky leaves and flowers with surmounting fleursde-lis. (Fig. 6) The square windows at the5

mezzanine level retain the original grilles . Thepanels at the corners of the frieze above the N" at the east and"GRAVESEND -GOW ANUS-BUSHWICK" at thewest.antae anchor the corners of the elevation .Ateach end of the architrave are inscribed panels"ANNO DOMINI MCMXV [1915]" bracketed byThe dentilled cornice, Lion-head waterurns .spouts , and tiled roof continue the roof silhouetteof the end elevations .Pierrepont Street annex (Fig . 4)The five-story office annex is three bays inwidth with paired windows at the center bay fromthe first through fourth stories and at the fifth storyis a single, wider window. Single windows appearin the outer bays . All windows have two-over-twosash.At the first story the windows haveprotective grilles of vertical metal bars . A smallmodern doorway has been added beneath thewesternmost window. The fenestration at the first,fourth and fifth stories is surmounted by keystonedlintels.The lower three stories continue thevermiculated rustication of the main building .Beneath the central bay of the third story is a panelinscribed "BROOKLYN TRUST COMPANYCHARTERED AD MDCCCLXVI [1866] THISBUILDINGERECTEDANNODOMINIM CMXV [ 1915] . " (Fig. 7) This panel is flankedby Renaissance-style shields -- that to the eastadorned with a band of checkerboard pattern andthree small birds in profile; that to the west withan oak tree, with its roots exposed. 24 At the uppertwo stories the walls continue the smooth ashlartreatment of the main building and are capped bya simple cornice.Subsequent AlterationsThe exterior of the Brooklyn Trust Companybuilding is extremely well preserved andmaintained, with only minor alterations, none ofwhich compromise the architectural integrity of thebuilding.Under the auspices of the theManufacturers [Hanover] Trust Company, theexterior was cleaned "using modern techniqueswhich completely eliminate the need . .forprocedures which can be injurious to architecturaldetails on fine buildings . " 25Signs beneath theentrance enframements bear the name of the bank ,and additional bronze sign plaques have beenplaced on the watertable. Comparisons with oldphotographs of the Brooklyn Trust Companybuilding -- taken a half century ago -- testify to thecontinuing care and respect for the building of itspresent owners and custodians .26Subsequent HistoryUnder Edwin P . Maynard's administration 27the bank continued to flourish.The newMontague Street headquarters were constructedand branch offices in Bay Ridge and Flatbushopened. In 1927 Maynard became Chairman ofthe Board of Trustees and George L. McLaughlinwas appointed president. He was to steer the bankthrough its period of greatest growth , not only inthe final boom years of the late 1920s, but alsothose of the Great Depression. In 1929, theMechanics Bank, one of Brooklyn's oldest andlargest commercial banks , was consolidated withthe Brooklyn Trust. Through further mergersduring the 1930s, the bank acquired branches inQueens and Staten Island. In this period the bankhad thirty-one branches throughout the city .28Under McLaughlin, who was a fan of theBrooklyn Dodgers, the bank, continuing itsoriginal concern with estate management, handledthe estates of all the baseball club's originalowners. 29The Brooklyn Trust Company, through furthermergers and acquisitions , became an amalgamationof more than a dozen original banking institutions,always retaining its preeminence and foundingname. In 1950, a merger with ManufacturersClinton Street elevation (Fig. 8)This long, side elevation continues the designof the entrance elevations. The seven-bay arcadeof the base has single bays of windows at eachend, which echo the designs of the end elevations.The double-height arched windows of the arcuatedbays are recessed , with a sexpartite, mullionedconfiguration, and stone panels (now painted)beneath.The Corinthian colonnade of the piano nobilehas fourteen bays, doubling the rhythm of theseven-bay arcade of the base. In the end bays,single windows with triangular pediments andcartouches appear at the fourth story; small ,rectangular windows are at the fifth. As on theend elevations, the fourth- and fifth-story recessedfenestration is Linked by red marble panels betweenalternating pilasters and engaged columns , withbalustrades beneath the fourth-story windows. Thewindows have two-over-two sash. Pilasters and6

Bank of today is a descendant and heir to much ofthe banking history of New York. 30Trust Company, a bank with its own old Brooklynhistory, legally ended the separate existence of theBrooklyn Trust Company .In its turn , theManufacturers Trust merged, in 1961 , with theHanover Bank, forming the ManufacturersHanover Trust Company. Thirty years later, thisbank merged with Chemical Bank. The ChemicalReport prepared byNancy J. Goeschel, Landmarks ConsultantNOTESl.This discussion is based on Anthony Robins, "Montague Street, Downtown Brooklyn," Building Blocksof Brooklyn A Study of Urban Growth (Brooklyn: Brooklyn Rediscovery and The Brooklyn EducationalAlliance, 1979), 29-62. See also LPC, Dime Savings Bank Designation Report, LP-1907 (New York:City of New York, 1994), prepared by David M. Breiner; Clay Lancaster, Old Brooklyn Heights: NewYork 's First Suburb (New York: Dover Publications, 1979).2.Pierrepont envisioned this development as a suburban enclave connected to Manhattan by the FultonFerry. See Robins , 31 , and Henry R. Stiles, ed. The Civil, Political, Professional and EcclesiasticalHistory and Commercial and Industrial Record of the County of Kings and the City of Brooklyn , NewYork, from 1683 to 1884 (New York: W.W . Munsell & Co., 1884), 129. This link to Manhattan wasfurther facilitated by the 1853 opening of the Wall Street ferry line at the west end of Montague Street.3.This history is based on the following sources, some to be more specifically cited below . RamblesAbout Historic Brooklyn (Brooklyn: Brooklyn Trust Co., 1916) foreword , and Historic Brooklyn(Brooklyn: Brooklyn Trust Co., 1941) foreword, the second publication a revised edition of the first ;Stiles; New York Times , articles from 1873 to 1967; Brooklyn Trust Company Charter and by-laws(Brooklyn, 1868); "The Story of Two Buildings; the Brooklyn Trust Company Building and its OriginalThe Palazzo Gran Guardia" (c.1931) , typescript, 4.4.Rambles and Historic Brooklyn , v.5.Many of the original incorporators of the Brooklyn Trust Company merited lengthy biographies inStiles. Among them: Henry E. Pierrepont; respected scion of a prominent Brooklyn family, his lifewas "one of trusts." He was involved with the Brooklyn ferry system and deeply committed to thecultural life of his community. He served as president of the Academy of Music and the BrooklynClub, and was a strong supporter and patron of the Art Association, Mercantile Library, and LongIsland Historical Society. He was also a founder of Greenwood Cemetery. (Stiles, 443-444). J. CarsonBrevoort; a serious naturalist, numismatist and bibliophile, he served as the first president of the LongIsland Historical Society and donated much of his collections and library to the Society and theAmerican Museum of Natural History . (Stiles, 1319-20). Daniel Chauncey; he was a builder whoextended his interests to banking and insurance. When the Brooklyn Trust Company "got into trouble"in 1873 he acted with "strict honor . [and] unraveled affairs without compensation." (Stiles, 625-626).Jasper W. Gilbert; a lawyer and judge on the State Supreme Court, he made some of the earliest rulingsin favor of school integration. (Stiles, 1275). Alexander McCue; another respected lawyer and judge, hemade seminal rulings on medical malpractice and abortion rights. Accused of wrong-doing in relation tothe Brooklyn Trust Company during the Panic of 1873, he was later exonerated. (Stiles, 1234-1235 andNYT, July 22, 1873 ; 5: 1). John T. Runcie ; he began his career in the "segar business" and laterexpanded his interests to Brooklyn real estate, horse-drawn railways and ferries. (Stiles, 608) . WilliamWall; from humble beginnings as a ropemaker, he rose to head an innovative cordage company, "thelargest business of the kind in the country", and served in the U.S. Congress during the Civil War.(Stiles, 719-20). James Weaver; beginning in the manufacture of window sash, and blinds, he becameinvolved with Brooklyn real estate, banking and insurance. (Stiles, 846) . Other members of the Boardof lncorporators were Henry J . Cullen, Daniel F . Fernald , Wm. M . Harris , William B. Lewis, John H.Prentice, Cornelius J. Sprague, and Alfred M. Wood .6.The Brooklyn Trust published pamphlets such as "Some useful information" of 1903 , intended toinform clients about the bank's capabilites and responsibilites in terms of estate and trust management.7

7."Death in the Surf

Located near Brooklyn Borough Hall (originally City Hall) and at the edge of Brooklyn Heights, this is the finest of the buildings on the Montague . (from 1891). In 1896, the Mechanics Bank erected a new ten-story office building on its original site. The site of the Brooklyn Academy of Music was redeveloped by banking and title companies .