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26/11/2014FaSSTrack Program 2014 - National University of SingaporeTEMPE: ITS OUTSTANDING AND DERIVATIVESPRODUCTSProf. Dr. Lilis NuraidaDepartment of Food Science and TechnologyBogor Agricultural UniversityIndonesiaOutlinesIntroductionHistory of tempeN t iti off TNutritionTempeFermentation ProcessChanges DuringFermentation of Tempe Tempe and itsderivative products Health Benefits oftempe Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20141

26/11/2014Introduction . 1 Tempe is a major fermented soybean food and is known forits attractive flavour, texture and superior digestibility. Tempe is one of the fermented soybean originated fromoutside China, Korea and Japan Tempe is made from cooked soybean that have beeninoculated by Rhizopus spores or starter culture called laru. The inoculated cooked soybean are packed into bananaleaves or perforated plastic bag and then left to ferment. The mold grows through to knit together the beans andturn them into tempe. white colored, compact texture and distinctive flavormixed from fungus and soy flavor.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Introduction . 2 Generally tempe is made of yellow soybean. Term of tempe is used for tempe made of soybean OtherOth beanbcouldld bbe ffermentedt d tto ttempe: wingi bbean(kecipir), koro benguk The name is after the raw material, i.e tempe kecipir,tempe koro benguk Tempe is an important part of Indonesian diet and it has alsobecome an exotic food recognised globally It is usually sold in a cake-like form and can be sliced Frying, stri frying and steaming are all popular ways ofpreparing tempeh. Tempeh is also commonly incorporatedinto stews, soups, and grilled kebabs or burger.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20142

26/11/2014History of tempe Soybean is originated from China, but tempe is believed tohave first been prepared on the island of Java in Indonesia,especially Central Java at least hundreds of years ago. Word of Tempe is written in “SeratSerat Centhini”Centhini a semi historybook describing Mataram Monarchy in Mid Java in 16thcentury Word of tempe is considered generated from ancient Javalanguage Although tempe started its career as a poor men’s food, atpresent it derives increasing appeal from its nonmeat nature,and nutritional and health functionalityfunctionality.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Tempeh producers Tempe is of socioeconomicimportance, because it provides jobsand income to a large number offamily-owned small-scale producers Home industries: The number of producers amounts toabout 115,000 in total Concentrated in Java island, thecapacity 10 to 50 kg soybeans per day Rumah Tempe Indonesia: Factory model applying more hygieneprinciplesProduction of tempe-derived snacks also takesplace at cottage scale and contributessignificantly to the job market.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20143

26/11/2014Tempe nutrition Nutritionally, tempe represent food rich in proteinsand also contains many other important nutrients. Its excellent protein quality has made tempebecoming in-expensive substitutes to meat. highly digestable as result of the fermentationprocess. Source of B vitamins and minerals tempeh may provide a readily available calcium the absorption of calcium from tempeh wasbetter than that from milkLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Nutrition facts per 100 g tempehNutritionContentNutritionContentWater54.9 gIsoflavones53 mgEnergy199 kcalCalcium, Ca93.0 mgProtein19.0 gIron, Fe2.3 mgFat7.7gMagnesium, Mg 70.0 mgSat. fatty acids1.11 gPhosphorus, P206 mgMono-unsat.fatty acids1.7 gPotassium, K367 mgPoly-unsat.fatty acids4.3 gSodium, Na6.0 mgCarbohydrates17 0 g17.0Zinc ZnZinc,1 81 mg1.81Fiber4.8 gCopper, Cu0.67 mgAsh1.4 gManganese,Mn1.43 mgSelenium, Se8.8 µgLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20144

26/11/2014Nutrition facts per 100 g tempehThiamine (B1)0.131 mgRiboflavin (B2)0.111 mgNiacin (B3)4.63 mgPanthotenic acid (B5)0.355 mgVitamin B60.299 mgFolic acid52.0 µgVitamin A69 µg References USDA Nutrient Database for Standard ReferenceLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20145

mes-and-legume-products/4381/2Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname foodspice&dbid 1266

26/11/2014p FermentationTempeFERMENTATION PROCESS Starter culture: laru or usar Main microorganisms: Rhyzopus oligosporus Homemade tempe contains a mixtures of both Rhizopusoryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus strains, together with otherbacteria. Process: Soybean are soaked overnight, seed coast are removed, splitinto halves, boiled, dried, cooled, inoculated. packed into banana leaves or perforated plastic bag andthen left to ferment for 2 days The mold grows through to knit together the beans and turn theminto tempe. Alternative: use of dehulled soybeanLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20147

26/11/2014Tempe fermentationWhole clean soybeanBoiling for 30 minSoaking overnightDehullingWashingTempeFermentation at room T30-40 hDrain and coolDarining and coolingWrapped in plastic bag or banana leafInnoculation (mixing with starter cultureLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Container for tempe fermentation Banana leaves Perforated plastic bag Wood container Container should: Permits access of sufficient oxygen for growth of themold The access of oxygen is not sufficient to promotesporulationl ti withith ddarkeningk i off myceliumli Control the temperature Retain the moisture during fermentation Avoid free contact of free water with the beanLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20148

26/11/2014Critical factors for tempe fermentation Moisture To much moisture favors bacterial ggrowth, but too littlemoisture inhibit fungal growth Oxygen Too little oxygen inhibits fungal growth Heat Too much heat inhibits fungal growth Too lowl temperature alsol inhibitsh b ffungall growthhLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Tempe starter A previous batch of sporulated tempe Laru: Mold grown in rice or tapioca pressed cake for 2 days Sun dried Usar: Boiled soybean wrapped in hibiscus leaves Fermented for 2 days The leaves are sundriedLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 20149

26/11/2014Characteristic of R. oligosporus Ability to grow rapidly at T 30 42oCI bilit tto ffermentt sucroseInabilityHigh proteolytic activityHigh lypolytic activityProduction strong antioxidantAbility to produce typical tempecakeAbility to grow on wheat and otherstarch cereal substrate withoutnoticeable amounts of organicacidLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Preparation of Powdered Tempe Starter CultureRice flourRoasted on panWaterCooledMixedInnoculationFerment : 48 hoursDrying, millingPowdered tempe startercultureLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201410

26/11/2014Traditional preparation oftempe starter cultureSemi pure starter culture mixedthoroughly with cassava solid wasteand warm water Packed in pperforated pplastic baggIncubated overnightCuttingSun driedStarter ready to useLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Preparation of UsarWhole clean soybeanBoil 30 minutesSoak overnightDehulling by handBoil or steamUsarDryingFerment : 48 hoursDrain and coolInnoculationspread the beans onsurface of hairy leavesand cover by anotherleaf (back to back)Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201411

26/11/2014Changes During Fermentation of TempeBenefit of tempe fermentation Primary benefits of soybean fermentation: Improvement of organoleptic quality and nutritional value Consecutive stages of the tempe fermentationprocess(soaking,(leaching and enzymatic modification)f)result in the removal of the beany flavours that present incooked soybean During the period of fermentation a total transformation ofsoybeans occurs,: Development new flavour and aromas, creating a uniquetexture and appearance: During fermentation of cooked soybeans: proteases,lipases, a variety of carbohydrases, and phytases areproduced, and degrade macromolecules intosubstances of lower molecular weightLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201412

26/11/2014Benefit of tempe fermentation Other changes: Enhancing the nutritional value and digestibility. a decrease of anti-nutritionalanti nutritional factors (ANF) isassociated with the action of the moulds and theirenzymes: Reducing trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid thatinhibits minerals availability. Producing bioactive compound, i.e. ergosterol(undetectable a mount in unfermented soybean) Tempeh have more bioactive peptides than non-fermented soy foods.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Soaking Hydration/Acid fermentation Acid fermentation take place during soaking pHH ffallsll tto 44.5-5.3553 Does not affect the mold growth, but prevents thedevelopment of undesirable bacteria that might spoilthe bean Lactic acid bacteria involve during this step Acidification the bean lengthen the fermentationtime before ammonia is deliberated The mold in tempe fermentation is very proteolytic;deaminationdi ti followingf ll i hhydrolysisd l i releaseslammonia,icausing pH to raise. Above pH 7, sufficent free ammonia is released to killthe moldLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201413

26/11/2014 Cooking: Destroyy contaminatingg bacteria Destroy trypsin inhibitor Release some of nutrient required by mold Draining Avoid excessive water that would favorbacterial growth and spoil the bean duringfermentationLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Biochemical changes occurring in soybean duringfermentation Changes in lipids Deliberating fatty acid during a 72 h at 37 C Changesg in carbohydratey Principals sugar in soybean: sucrose, stachyose and raffinose Principal changes in carbohydrate are the rapid removal ofhexoses and the slow hydrolysis of stachyose Changes in amino acids Available lysine and methionine show a decrease during tempefermentation pH increase to 7.1, as the result of active proteolysis anddeamination of amino acids TwoT keyk storage proteins—glycininil i i andd conglycinin—arel i ibroken down by molds, yeasts, and bacteria into peptidefragments that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bloodpressure-lowering properties.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201414

26/11/2014Antinutritional Factor (ANF) Raw soyabeans contain significant levels of ANF, such astrypsin inhibitors and phytic acid. Leached out or destroyed during soaking and cooking,cookingand also during fermentation. Soaking and boiling reduces trypsin inhibitor activity The decrease of phytic acid is very important because itinhibits minerals availability Tempe fermentation reduces levels of phytic acidsignificantly, resulting in significant increases of calcium,zinci andd iiron. A reseach showed: iron-deficient rats consuming tempeachieved higher liver iron levels than those fedunfermented cooked soybeansLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Vit B12 in Tempe Tempe produced by home industries contains vit B12 Tempep made with purep mold does not contain vit B12 Responsible bacterium to produce vit B12 Klebsiellapneumonia and C. freundii Common microoganism on plant materials Probably present in tempe innocula These bacteria can enter the tempe as a result ofcontamination, whichh h means thath theh process is not underdcontrolVitamin B12 is required by our body for theproduction of DNA and red blood cells.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201415

26/11/2014Tempe and Its Derivative ProductsCooked tempe(1st generationtempe products)Tempe is directly cooked without any preprocessing of tempe Tempe could be easily seenin the product: fried tempe, stir fried tempe, stewtempeTempe as raw material(2nd generation oftempe products)Tempe, as raw material is furtherprocessed into food product: tempeburger, tempe ice cream, baby food,tempe cookies, cupcakes mixedpotato/tempe snack foods, tempespread made with grated carrot,tempe sausage, tempe milk and drymixes based of tempe powder forchapatti, porridge and soupTempe as functionalfoods(3rd generation oftempe products )Tempe as a source ofbioctive compoundLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201416

hpLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Tempe as functional foods Tempe is not only cheap protein source, butalso serves as a functional food: Antidiarrhoae and antiinfection Antioxidant Hypocholesterolemik effect AnticancerILSI: a foodILSIf d can beb consideredd d functionalfl iff it can demonstratedsatisfactorily that it has beneficial effect on one, or several specificfunctions in the organism, beyond the normal nutrition effects thatimprove the state of health and well being, or reduce the risk of adiseaseLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201417

26/11/2014Some key phytonutrients that can befound in tempeh and other soy foods Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids daidzen ggenistein malonylgenistin malonyldaidzin Phenolic Acids Caffeic acid Coumaric acid Ferulic acid Gallic acid Sinapicp acid Phytoalexins glyceollin I glyceollin II glyceollin III Phytosterols beta-sitosterol beta-stigmasterolbeta stigmasterol campestrol Proteins and Peptides defensinsglycininconglycininlunacin SaponinsSi soyasaponins (group Aand group B) soyasapogenolsLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Health Benefits of Tempe18

26/11/2014Improve Digestion and Absorption Macromolecules are degraded into oligomeric and smaller unitsimproving the tempe digestion Enzymes produced by the mould predigests a large portion of thebasic nutrients resulting ins olub le solids, such as solublenitrogenous compounds. the level of water-soluble dry matter of food samples increasedfrom 7% in soybean to 27% in tempe The Rhizopus moulds produce an enzyme phytase which breaksdown phytates: increasing the absorption of minerals such as zinc, iron andcalcium. The fermentation process greatly reduces the oligosaccharides thatmake beans hard to digest for some people. Tempeh is essentially non-flatulent and does not produce gas High fiber content: Fiber is essential for a healthy digestive tract as well aspreventing many chronic diseasesLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Anti-Diarrhoeae As early as the 1960s, tempe was reported to contain anantibacterial substance, confirmed as demonstratedantimicrobial activity against disease-causing organisms,especially diarrhoeae cauisng bacteria such as E. coli,Salmonella typhii, Shigella Recent work shows that several tempe extracts were ableto inhibit adhesion of E. coli to small intestine mighttherefore have a protective effect against E.E coli infection.infection Baby food containing tempe shortened diarrhoeaduration in baby with chronic diarrhoeaLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201419

26/11/2014Anti-oxidative Fermentation of soybean foods causes increasedantioxidative capacity fermentation of soyaincreased the human bioavailability of isoflavone Predominant isoflavone in soybean: genistin, daidzinand glycitin are converted to genistein, daidzein,glycitein during fermentation Daidzein and genistein are phytoesterogen whichhave estrogenic, antiesterogenic, anticarcinogenic,antiviral antifungal and antioxidant characteristicsantiviral, Other antioxidant: factor 2 (6,7,4 trihydroxyisoflavone)Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Isoflavones levels in some foods (per 100g)FoodIsoflavone levelTempeh43.52 mgPeas bean2.42 mgPeanuts0.26 mgNavy bean0.20 mgChickpeas0.10 mge t sLentils0.1000 mgg(Source:USDA-Iowa State University Database onthe Isoflavone, Rel. 1.3 - 2002)Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201420

26/11/2014 Isoflavone Isoflavones are phytochemicals, which are compounds found only inplants. They are a type of phytoestrogen. The most beneficial isoflavones are genistein and daidzein Health effects of isoflavones: LowerLcancer risk/anti-tumori k/ ti tor anti-cancerti protect DNA from free radical attack, acts as an anti-estrogen by binding to the estrogen receptor and"blocking" the growth-promoting effects of estrogen in cancercells. Improved bone health:, reduce bone loss and slow calcium loss Relieves menopause phytoestrogens may produce enough estrogenic activity torelieve symptoms such as hot flushes. Lowers cholesterol decrease the bad LDL cholesterol and increase the beneficialHDL cholesterol. Lilis. Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Protecting from chronic degenerativediseases Soy bean: Soya protein has a potential role in theprevention and treatment of chronic diseases,most notably cancer, heart disease.osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms Soybean protein has been known for manyyears to have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. Isoflavones in soybeans also have favourableeffects on the postmenopausal reproductivesystem and bone health.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201421

26/11/2014Protecting from chronic degenerativediseases Tempe lowers blood cholesterol levels: beneficial as a protective agent against cardiovascular disease Hypocholesteraemic effects may be due to the protein, fiber,carotenoids,, sitosterol,, isoflavones,, calcium,, lecithin,, niacin,,and/or unsaturated fatty acids in tempe Tempe, especially its glucolipids, inhibits the proliferation oftumour cells in mice Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a free radical scavenger thatincreased during soyabean fermentation concomitant with thegrowth of the tempe mould. Rats consuming tempe had increased SOD activity in serum andliliveranddddecreasedd lilipidid oxidation.id ti Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been overproducedin soybean tempe : The GABA-enriched tempe was reported to have an antihypertensiveeffect on rats.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Other potential health benefit Prevention and treatment of obesity. Some of the unique peptides (protein breakdownproducts) in soy that have been associated with obesityprevention and treatment. Prevention of type 2 diabetes. Soy foods have been shown to lessen insulin resistanceby increasing the synthesis of insulin receptors in animalstudy. Soy Saponins Tempeh and other soy products contain high levels of saponins. Health Benefits of Soy Saponins May contribute to cholesterol lowering by increasing bilesecretion and may reduce the risk of colon cancer.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201422

26/11/2014Use alternative raw materials A large variety of raw materials can, inprinciple, be transformed into tempe Other susbtrate commonly used in Indonesia: legumes and pulses: Tempe kecipir (wing bean) (Psophocarpustetragonolobus) Tempe koro benguk Tempe lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala) Industrial waste: Tempe gembus solid waste of tofu (ampas tahu) Tempe bongkrek (coocnut press caked)Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014Other legumes that has been used/tetsed tomake tempe worldwidely black gram (Phaseolus mungo), horse (wild) tamarind (Leucaena leucocephala), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens), Others: horsebean, chickpea, common bean,cowpea, kidney beans, lupin, green pea andpigeon pea.Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201423

26/11/2014Nutrition content of various tempe per 100 g wet basisZat GiziTempe TempeTempe TempeKedelai KoroLamtoro GembusBengukgEnergi (kkal)Protein (g)Lemak (g)Karbohirat (g)Kalsium (mg)Fosfor (mg)Besi (mg) 10,0Vitamin A (SI)Vitamin B1 48000,09Source : Directorate Nutrition, Ministry of Health (1992)Lilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 2014 Tempe bongkrek: Fermented byy tempep starter Made of coconut pressed cake Often contaminated with Pseudomonas cocovenenans Producing bongkrek acid, very toxic Not recommended to be praticedLilis Nuraida – Department of Food Science and Tech. IPB – July 201424

26/11/2014THANK YOU25

26/11/2014 4 Tempe nutrition Nutritionally, tempe represent food rich in proteins and also contains many other important nutrients. Its excellent protein quality has made tempe becoming in-expensive substitutes to meat. highly digestable as result of the fermentation process. Source of B vitamins an