l stand Publicity DepartmentTHE SCCIO-QJL'IUAAL IMPACI'S OF mJRISMA Review of Literature, Policy and ResearchImplications for New Zealand

WP POL3835ISSN 0112-9740NZTP SOCIAL RESFARE.Cl-1SERI 1988/1THE SOCIO-QJLWRAL IMPACIS OF lfOORISMA Review of Literature, Policy and ResearchImplications for New ZealandPrepared by David G Sirmonsof Lincoln College for theNew Zealand Tourist & Publicity.DepartmentResearch SectionNew Zealand Tourist & Publicity DeparbnentPO Box 95WellingtonNEW ZEALANDJuly 1986ISBN: 0-478-02008-2PRICE: FREE OF OiARGESR/1988/1

CONTENTSPrefaceChapter1.'IOWA.RDS A DEFINITICN OF TOURISM31.1Tourism and its resource systems51.2'Iburism - service industries and a culturalproduct .61. 3A New Zealand Example71. 4The New Zealand Tourism Product9Visitor perceptionIntended Activities·rnfonnation Sources99101.5Who is Responsible? . .122.A CHANGING TOURISM PRODOCT142.1Visitor Tastes .2.3Physical Developnent1720222.4Surrmary233.THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM253.1Definitions253.2Difficulties in Understanding Past Studies263.3The Nature of Tourist - Host Encounters .293.4Specific Factors that Contribute to SocioCul tural Im:pacts(a) Behaviour .(b) Policy and Planning(c) Structural .-2. 2 .Host Perceptions31 . 3232333.5The Demonstration Effect343.6'Iburism as a Scapegoat343. 7Positive Effects 'Ibo36The Potential for Socio-cultural Impacts inNew Zealand'Iburism Styles and Impacts36-3.83.941

- 2 -Chapter- CULTURE AND TOURISM434.14.2Culture and the Tourism Product44''Natural" vs cultural Resources444.3The Maori Role in 'Iburism464.44.5Maori Self ImageA "hidden" culture48484.6Need for Direction494. 74.8Quality for the Masses50A Wider Cultural Identity514.9Sane Conclusions515.MEASURING AND PLANNING FOR SOCIAL IMPACTS545.1Social Impact Assessment555.2What and How to Measure595.3The Need for Planning625.4A Strategic Approach to 'Iburism Planning635.5Is there a Tourism Capacity?655.6The Recreation Opportunity Spectrt.nn665. 7Applications to .2Concluding Camnent72REFERENCESAPPENDICIES

PREFACEThis paper has !Jeen commissione(] l.Jy the New Zealarn.1andPublicity Departme11t.cussion paperonrequirements forl:heTouristIts ol. Jectlves are. to pre:3e11t a dis-socio-culturalimpactso[tourisma!l 1their monitoring anc.1 planning.·To achieve Lhese ol.Jjeclives has required a wider review titansimplysummarisin Firstly,lourJ::;mdiscussed.New Zealand a11tJ.1. -;overseas studies and reports.andcJefi11euilsrolei11c.levelopmentMuch of lllis first section focusses on tourism as a pr o au c t ' an a a n i11 cJ 11 ::.d: ry.Th i sa J s cuss i ons up po r le ui sbyanumber of sub-themes; why tourist's visit New Zt!aland, who 'owns'the tourism product, alllJ how does lids p.roduct evolve over time.Thesec o n dma j u rf o cu :3socio-cultural impacts.·studiesmerelyison fa c lo r sA central themeth a thereisco 11 ti: i but e t othatimpactassist us in deter:minin· how well we ar:e rneetin :JoUJ: objectives.It is alsoproductover time and is specific to different destina-changestion areas,arguedthatbecausethewe will need l:o uevelop our own systems oftourismplanningand monitoring that suit our own unique position ancl culture.Thestudies revieweJ ore draw11 toyel:her i11 Chapters 5 anJ 6to create a monitorinq and research frarnewor:k forassessment in New Zedla11c1'!: lour ism development.1socialimpact

l\.CKNOWLEDGEHENTSThisresearchpaperwasrunded byNew Zealand Tourist andPublicity Department.Considerable co11tributions i11 searchingbackground 111aterial. .:rnd reviewing di.a[L::; were also maue by NZTPstaff,particularly staff of the research and policy sections ofNZTP head office Welli11qlo11.Specialrneutionmust be maue of the contribution of Dr PatDevlin of Lincoln Colle9e who attended the Manaakitanga HuiinRotorua and subsequently wrote Chapter '1 'Culture and Tourism'.Dr Devlin also made extensive reviewschapters of this .report.Ao[earlydraftsofallnumber of collL! .i Jues also made reviews of a working draftof this paper.Their comments have significantly shaped thisfinal copy.They are Dr Nick Taylor, Mr Colin Goodrich, Dr DougPearce (Canterbury University), Dr Rodger Gabb (Lincoln ristchurch).To all theabovl Iextend my sincere thanks.David SimmonsParks ano RecreationLincoln Colle JeJuly 19862Garrett

CHAPTER lTOWARDS A DEFINITION OF TOURISMAnumberits role in 'attempts have been made t.o define tourism itseconomicTourism has often been described as a.n "invisiblebringingmoney stimulatesfreshfur.l:herrnuneyinto a country or re9ion.spenuinginthecommunityThisbothastourists themselves an J the tourist industry 'purchase local goodsand services. Local worke.u; in the tourism industry gene.rate additionaleconomic tuurnver as they in turn spend their wages andsalaries.Ecunomic models uf luurl:: mpointoutU1atcomparedwilhother industries tourism in New Zealand is well placed, to generate down-stream effetts.Becausetourismisaserviceindust.1:yitis also par-In New Zealand ithas been a:rgueJ lhc.tL ever.y 12 inLernational tourists c.1:eate onejob for one year, somewhere in the economy.ticularly effective at creating employment.T ou r i s m' s t h iinthe:tc1 rnd j u rdistributione c o n om ic c o t 1Lr Urn t i o n i s t oof its economic effects.l ef o u n c1While uther i11-dustries tend to d.1:aw resources to large centres,tourism,because of the dit;i; ersed nature of its attractions and resourcestends to distribuLe income more widely, often to poorly developeuregions.Tourism is,traditionalhowever,formsofstructurally di ererit from any otherdevelopinentJsuchasagricultureor

man u fa c tu r i n g .consumers.The s e iOn!l L1us L r l es e x I:' or t the i rconlrary,Liiefortopr o d u ct stourism,t he i r:tourists(theconsumers) travel to local sites to experience the "product",the places where it is produced.A plan forattourism deve 1opme11 tmust accept as one of. its starting points the need to balance the.wide economic impacts against the mpacts brought about by the physicalpresence of tourists themselves.Whlle early att:e1upts toeconomicconsicJeratiunsLh :3about tourism's wider e[fects have ::;een an increasingeconomists(BrycJen 1973,Bu.rkart arnl Mc llik 1981,socialscientlsl.sparticularlyMacCannel 1976) anthropolo9y eandbegunonconcernnumberofArche.r 1976)beginning to questio11 the 'Llisbenefits' 0 tourism.timebasedAt the same·(Cohenleisure1974,·theoryto study tourism.Similar conce.rns led tile World Bank and UNESCO to ::;vonsur a majorseminar: on tourism in 1976.nar(de Kadt,The edited highlights of this semi--1979a) signify a renewed interest in defining andmanaging the social,cultural ancJ environmental consequencesoftourism.Inanhisto.ricalrecent phenomenon.fromthelatecunLextmust be seen as a verytourismIndeed its real :1.rowth in New services.Concern for: social and cultural impacts is evenrecentdiffere11LasJestinationsperiences of tourism development.Zealandh veIt.repurLeclismoreon their ex-necessarythatNewlearns from these experiences and develops mechanisms toplan for such consequences here.

Tourism and its resource 8ystemsAlongside aUJH-1erstarnJi11y or tourism'sln:oac11 reffectshasbeen a focus on the resources and sy::.:1terns that sustaln lt.J.afarl has written that:" Tour i s m i ll 1etheindustryl:haL both he!:')l: u ll y o [ma ri a way[ r o 111 It i s usu a 1 ha b i tat , o fwhich responds Lo his needs,Ull ,"JJHlincl11r,;tryh 1veonand the impactslhesocio-ho:.:;Lcultural, economic anu physical environments" (1977:8)and identified Lile followin':I co11tributi11y areas:of Man the Traveller:I 11c 1 ur1ed lte re would be f ac Lor sbe 1 i eve d t o ue ma J u r. Ll e t e r rn i n a 11 t s o f tr ave 1 ,such as incomeand available leisure time.Study2.The Tr ave 1 I n d us t .r y :accommodation,and the like.tour ism Joods and services - includingtransportation, travel agencies, attractionsLeiper (1979) would also include a group ofs er v e the pub 11 c a tlarge, for example relail shops and pu!Jlic services.'incidental'·3.TheSettillg:environment.l n du:: tr i e :3theth rJ s esocio-culluralwhofabr:icandphysicalTIH!Se are the rnany [actors that contribute toa destinatior1 1 s local atmosphere - friendly people, customs,atmosphere.The OECD (Travi5 1980) groups these as threecriticalsetsof resources, each with their management requirements.(a)Naturalair, landResources:cUHJthe111diulc na11ceof a high qualitywal:1::r, alony wilh a favourable climate.

(b)Man-Made Resources:'built heritdqe'-the pr.ol:eclion and integrity of thehistoriccities,towns,buildingsand landscape.(c)TheCultural Resuurces:the idenlity,ofLhe protection and enhancementassociations,values,artisticandcultural character, activities and herila Je.Thesedusli:y(.1, erI.Jul are "::;e)to u r l s ts t o aTheresource:: do not belong Lo any one ln-'free lnliere11L'1] efact thats t i 11 a t i on "UH sethe prime movei:s( J a fa l'. i4.'TheEncounter:tourR i t ch i e1981 : 17 ) .l'.esources ar.e see11 Lo be 'free'man property belonging to all,challenges foran uin di:awingi ;mprovides oneofor com-themajorplanning.Hust-quest relationship.It is noted thatthis area of study involves not 011ly tourists(guests)andresidents(hosts) !Jut involves other relationships includingeconomicandpolilical .limer1sior1s.Clearly this theme iscentral to any discussion on social or cultui:al impacts.1.2Tourism -Service Illl1usl:ries and a Cultural ProductIn reviewi11y the co11tribution of these resuu.t:ces tuone can touList reso1uces are frequently not theindustrydependentalone.Evenspecifictouristfor thei:r success on the wider socialand natural environments in which they operate.For these :resources planning andusually the responsibility of Centralmanoyemenl:an functionsLocal Government.ten they receive litlle by way of industry a::;si!: Ld1H.:e.6dreOf-Clearly

a close partnershibJ between public and private sectors isessen-tial for wise tourism development.Sec JtHJly,it ls 11oteu that touris111 resources are by theirnature geographically. dif:fuse. Thus impacts are spread more lha!lfor other development alternatives.mayCertain parts of acountrybe more generously endowed with 'tourism' resources and as aresult by pa.r:ticula.tly at.Li.activewhilethereloirnJuslry.LlieHowever,may be ouvious advanta9es [or economic distributiont a k i n y s I! e 11 d i n y l. u LI I l r e y i o n s ' L Ii e s e a r e a s Illa y n o l Ii a v e t Ii einfrastructure or community resources Lo support growth intourist demand.i n'Finally,tourism r:esources cot1stitule a wide mix u naturaland socio-culturalobvious,e.g.te::.HJUll , ;.WhilernounLain scenery, 30111eofbeaches,perhaps not so obvious - cultural events,l:hese are relativelywildlife, others arethe 'way ofli[e'ofthe people, an l politlce1l and ecouomic stability.'Group u[ ExpertsThe OECD(1980) remind us that environmentalonEnvironment and Tourism'changesarecharacteristi-cally of a long-term nature (while tlte market usually has a relativelyshort term view) a11tl that the market place cannul measurethe multitude ofquality."Itispropriate talthe responsibility of governments al the a1: local,environmentisnational and international,to ensuremaintainedin a condition which cor-responds to the needs of the tourists,the local inhabitants andto national objectives" (OECD 1980:8).1.3A New ZealanJ Ex91t1pleExamplesofhowwe need to focus our planning bot:h on in-dustry and tourst experience (1: roduct:) re1Julrernents are7easyto

generate.Take, for exa.rnple, the question of: road sealing.Doesroads to llldke occess easier actually improve thesealingtourist's experie11ce?Presumably for re11tal vehicle companiesunsealed roads are a sour.ce of f:ruslraLion,crease maintenance a11 l cleaning cosls.tour i s tsmay a c t u a lJ yc; Ii o o 5e u n s ea l e cJOn.t o ad as they directly inthecontrarysumepr i ma r 11 y be ca use o the quality of Lhe exp rience it llld'.f lead to.Sealin9 sume roadsmay therefore sirnpJ y lead l:ourists to choose alternative unsealedroads as they seek a sl111llar quality of experie11ce.In this situation we have serious info.rmatio11Zealand.gapsinNewWe simply do not know how hirers of rental vehicles fr1general (and campervans in pa.rticulur) use Lite tuu.rism "p.roducl".Where do they go, stop, walk, shop, park . ?of their tourist experience?What is the natureSuch inio.rmalion is seen as essen-tial especially when Lids sector is growin9 so .Cast.We need to ask ourselves why do visitors come to New Zealandrather·thanother destinations?What really is the product wear:e packaging, promoting and selling?lrnd inally,what factorswill bring detrimental changes to this product.I n t er. ms of LIi -! 4 t If- .; L j o 11 wIi a tl s l he Luu r is t pro u u c::: t?is always reticent to of fer simple statements toissues."Inanswer- onecomplexThe following quute, however, p.r:ovides a useful summary:essenceitisthevery life and fabric of a countrywhich its tourist resources".(Mawhinney/Bagnall, ECE Study 1975:164)8

1.4The New Zealand Tourism Pr:oducLConsiderable support for the above notionbasedtour ismproductlsoIaculturallyfound ln research 111Lo tour l::.ts' ex-pe.r iences in New Zeulam].A.Visitor Percewti.t. 11Henshall i t al ( 1981) illustrateNewZealandbywayoIavisi lors'perceptionsofpilot "before" and "after" stutly o[visitors and note that visitor impressions are raised for:*the r e 1 a x i n J·kt lie uncrowded cu u 11 try*friendly people*safe country*unpolluted lanuscdpepact u( l i ewhile increased negative images were reportedservicing functionsnature of shopping.including entertainment,foranumberofand lhe expensiveIntended ActivitiesWhile it is not clear what faclors are important in converllng intentions into behaviour,arenonetheless important.of domestic and overseasvisitor preferences foractivityHenshall (1982) cites a pilot studyvisitors'holiday.9intentionsfortheirnext

Domestic ; YesOverseas'l Yes71565247692567Visit a National ParkVisit a MuseumGo TrampingVisit Arts and Cra(t Ce11tresVisit New Zealand family jntheir homeVisit Botanical GardensPllmmer7065684444(1985) has recently commented on the continued growth ofan 'inner directed'qualitative(astonr ist segment-· tl1osewhoseekauthenticopposed Lo quantitative) experiences.evidenced by the growth of the FIT (FreeIndependentThis isTraveller}segment in New Zealand.Information Sour.cesStudiesofinternationalvisitors to New Zealana identify"word of mouth" as the most important source offluencing a decision to visit (e.g.NZTP 1976,information1982).in-Henshallet al (1981) cited Lim's (1981) more detailed breakdown.Thesestudies may be summarised as:*70 per centPersonal communicationComprising 25-45 per cent of people whohad visited New Zealand20-40 per cent people living in NewZealand, business contacts, New Zealanderstravelling abroad.*17 per centAdvertisi119 materials*6-10 pe:r: ceutStudies and reading10

Thenature.ofin onnalim1thL:;ha: ; ;ystemt1number ofhavereturnedimplications.Firstly,the aLLlLudes of those peoplewhohome after touring this cou11try, and of New Zealanders overseas,are of pararnounl irnporl;;- rnce.IIensliall et al conclu .le Lhat themedia message should not contradict th1:. personally conveyed view,as the media message Jws d very much lower credibility than faceto face communication (1.981:?.9).A second implication is that the level of agreement.betweenvisitor's expectations and what acLually happens (or: is perceivedtohappen)is central Lo their salisfuclion.For tourism,what people hear and read of New Zealand does not matchwhat they experience,satisfaction willvisitors.a :::;atisfaction 't:Jdl ' edtotheupifwithTltis 'dis'-potentialnewdisastrous con-sequences this has had for: the Carribean.As avery simple elaboration of lhlsargumentifvisitorscoming to New Zealand were to perceive tltat public attitudes (andtowar:u them were different from their: expectationsbehaviour)(e.g.locals were perceived as less friendly,moreapathetic . ),tourists might become less satisfied with theirvisit.This in turn would be passed on to prospective tourists,in the longer term affecting industry growth.Because of a timelag in tourist decision making people who had saved, made plansand bookings might still visit hence exacerbating the developmentof negative attitudes in the short term.The development of suchattitudes may be modifled by opting for certain styles o[ tou:r:ismof other styles.response of increasingaheaddecline in visitatio11 . . .Getz (1983) has found that the industrypromotionalactivitytocounteracta"Could actually result in exacerbation11

of the problems which lead Lo visilor dissatisfaction" l J.249.He11Jl1 Jll el al (1981)Thus110Lc:"seekiny co111Jru.e11ce he!:weenandNewZeal :11Hh rsoversea ;visitors'expectationsown desires governing the acceptabilityof tourist e11cou11Lers is a cr.ucidl issue Lobedecidedbynat.ional debate" (IJ.i).Ll1erefore ·"WhattheNew Zealander wanls is surely al leasl as impoz:-Lant as what overseas tourists wa11L".(p.36).Who is Responsiule?1.5The type of social impacts we maytourismgrowthwillbearesultasaresultofdifferent in nature from those arisingfrom the gi:owth of other industries.notexpectThe major social impact isof the production t.ii:ocess but as a consequence ofthe fact that the consumer is brought to theproduct.Wearethus presented with a whole range of l?':!ople lo people impacts.·Thetourism product is essentially l:he country itselI,landscape, the cities, the weather and of experiences.Ain generating a clear public uriderstanuing of theimportance of tour ism to New Zealand.inthe people andtherefore accept sorne respon-sibility toward generating satisfyingprioritytheThe tour ism industry has,very little direct control over lhe most important in-formation source - word of mouth.Those involve aduitionaltourism must be planned and developed12

CHAPTER 2l\Clll\NGING TOURISM PRODUCTThe previous section has described tourism as auniquein-dustry in that it transports its consumers into the product.Thetourismitsproducthasbeen described as the country itself -natural and social resources - the land and the people.A second consequence·of this processlsproduct ls always changing and evolving.come more familiarthatthetourismThis happens as we be-in dealing with our guests andvisitorsmoreaware of what we have to offer.Althoughthegeneralprocess of how a tourist destinationevolves is still poorly understood a number of factors and stagesof developmentingar recognised (Wall 1982).preferences and needs of visitors,host populations,the change(orThese include chang-changing attitudes amongevendisappearance)oftheoriginal natural and cultural attractions and changes in physicallayout.These themes are briefly reviewed in this section.Althoughsomeconsistencyisseentourist destinations it is emphasised bythatnot all areasothers.ex olution ofallwritersthe described stages as clearly asSpecific destinations are influenced as well as the characteristics of their natural andsocial resources systems.integratedinBecause few writers have considered anmodel of tourism development and much of the researchreported here is very recent, little attention has yet been givenr14

to the most beneficial stage of development or of howtoassessor modify various stages.Butler(1980)has attempted to provide an integrated modeldepicting the evolution of a tourist area.togetheranumberofproduct-cycle concept.theabovethemesItandseekstodrawis based on theThis cycle follows the premise of productsales proceeding slowly at first,then experiencing a rapid rateofdecline.growth,stabilityandslowIn other words an Sshaped (asymmetric) curve (Figure 3) is followed.A TOURISM AREA CYCLE OF EVOLUTIONR juvipn.11iu11/ J\,,/'CiUJICAL RANGE OfElEMEHIS Of Cll'AClllCon1oli l;1cionr-------,.llr-- -sc . . gnacion .:::----\ ""-::::.----- C-------\"- .- - o dinr \\.\.\E'-olnvolvr111t·111F1cuRr. I. Hypolhctical cvulu1iu11 of a louri'I area.i ff"'·""".' ,., lf;:.\.I .'-::}In Butler's terms a resort area passes through a sequence ofchanges which he has ange to the physical or social environments.15oriented"and limited

2.Involvementnu bersIncreasingof visitor facilities.Some locals beginto cater specifically for tourisls.3.DevelopmentThe evolution of a well defined tourist market area.associatedgrowthWithin visitor numbers comes larger and moreelaborate facilities.Butlernotes"asthisstageprogresses local involvement and control of development willdecline rapidly (1980:8).Thefollowingtwostages suggest that the type of touristattracted changes as a wider market is drawn.4.ConsolidationThe rate of increase in visitor numbers beginsalthough absolute numbers continue to increase.ditions are made to the infrastructure.thetodecline,Few new ad-Butler reports thatnumber of visitors and the facilities provided for them"can be expected to arouse some opposition andtentamongpermanent residents"(1980:8)discon-particularlythose not directly involved in the tourism industry.5.Stagnation PhaseThis stage l,numbersurplus capacity is available and thesocialandof visitors decline,resortslowlylosesits fashionable status.6.Dec 1 i n e IR e ·j u v e n ta t i onAfterstagnationadestination may decline further or in-novations may be sought.adequacyo[Key factors suggested here are thethe protection of resources,the ability to re-place absolete plant, and/or develop secondary attractions.16

[l111JJ11r 1:;Butler'sthis paper;"atho s ei:'who a rtourist:ar.c- as.c I v11 1lJ , .To1iri ;I.oft he.i;1 I: t; I !.: 11c1 e :l.;I)those ci.l:ed elsewhere inr 0 '.! 11 i r e clp J. a n n i. 1JI J ,[ or;1l.!.r. 1cl:.ionr;;u· cl e v ri 1 op i. 11 g11nLr: i n iTl1c·y c:c11lld thenIi' i11f:J11jl:el: e.'.1 :3par tl: Ii c:o 11o f.ndrna 11 a g i n J;111 ]l:ime1f!:";! .-:ipos s i b l yn o n --n1orc carefully protected(J.930:11).'s H1cHlr l:;11 1 .J .ir :;l:: t o u r i s t :::; y:. l e m .the hos t in g pop u l2.1rsi.rnllar;11111renewable r.esources.Hnl:J.( l'.nr er; p u t 1:; i l.i l r but should be vieweiland preserved"; u:e;1l i. o !lt:nnl:i 11111. u:.: c:Ji;111 J sT Ii e :-; e ·" r e v i. :-; i l o i:;!com 1011 nl i 11 al]l: a s t e s ,pe r ce pt i onso .Et o I II r: phys i ca 1. ::; c t l: i 11 g .11 l c: It 1 WJ 5Visitor TastesCycles of development have been li:.·sc:riued as theyapplytothe tastes and perceptions of visitors.Smithof(1977)t our l s m, c 1 as slocal no:rmscreaseandihr 1in ln!;r.o ]uclngf i e 1.1 !: o 1.11: l(custom ;).l\t :3l: 3,J c .d.uclies1.: n u li 119on tile c:rntlnopolor:1yt n l he i r adapt a t l on st:ou:rism changes in scale, in--the t:ype 0 tourist att:J:.:wl:ecJ becomes lessand therefore more 'obvious'l:o loc;ll residents17l: uauaptabl( (TabJe 1).

Table 1Freguence of types of tn1uisl:s c:1no local norm::;Tourist typesNumlY rs1\rlaptal:ion::; to local normso[t:o111: l.stsExplorerVery J imi l:edi\ccepls fullyEliteRarely seenl\1JaptsOff-beatU11co111rno11 bu ul lyAllapts wellJ.r,(];1 p Lss omewila t:UnusualOL'CilSIncipient massSteady f J.owSP.eks Western amenitiesMassConli11uo11s flowExpects Western amenitiesCharterMassive arrivalsD m.:i.ndsOlli1Western amenitiesSmith, V (1977), Fi9ure 1, p.9Source:Her classification of tourist types was built on the earlierwork of Cohen (1972) who had used factors such as theinstitutionalisationto construct atourisminterest:111plorers to individual;ibasistype.(1973)evolutionar.yscheme. lesl.ination evolves from drifters to ex--rn;J sg a ins in sop h is t l c i:l l: j o 11p J. O Jtnorganis1 dmassastheindustry i'll inli;irlprevlou jly(motivational 11i: L lcvelope l J psychologicalan d.ysi.nqcl10.119es ln touristHis su9geslion w;1'.; Lhc:1t: r:escnb; visil:orstinuum fromof(industry support) developed for travellers :;l:epfourdegreealloc1. 11l:r.i 1::·;l:nudd'Allocentr. ics'c1 11tricsl:o011a con-psycltoce11t:rics.meeting people fromother cultures and ac:tivit:ies while 'psychocentrics'preferfamiliar destJn;il:jon ·. ;11irl -.rl:t:i.ngs ;n1 l Ji;1ve low .1c:l:ivity Jevels.UJ

Whatevertheterminology the suggestion of these models isone of an evolution in which increasingwiththemvisitornumbers,bringchanges in orientation such as decreasing willingnessto adapt to local custom.Thus visitors become more obvioustolocals for reasons otJier than increases in numbers alone.InmorerecentworkCohen has focussed both on differentmodels or styles of tourist behaviou:i:(Cohen 1974) and the mannerin which they perceive the host's presentation. of theirThismodel (Cohen 1979)Firstly,, organised according to two variables.the tourist's impression of the scene or event as 'realstaged'and secondly the nature of the scene from the host'sperspective: real or staged.This 2 x2classificationgivesrise to four possible tourist-environment experiences:* authentic: events that are recognised and correctlyperceived by tourists as authentic.*-staged authenticity: tourist questioning ofauthenticity when,in fact,it is real.* denial of authenticity: tourist failure torecognise a contrived space.*contrived: tourist recognition of the created,manufactured environment: (Cohen 1979: 27-28).Inonly two of these outcomes (authentic and contrived) arethe expectations met for both hosts and guests.sureoftime all options,Under the pres-but particularly staged or denial ofauthenticity, present many opportunities for misunderstanding between the parties.19

When these scenarios are set against adimension - tourists' desire for,furtherinsightsintofurtherover-ridingor indifference to authenticitytouristsatisfaction and impacts aregained.However, the important point of this section is that tourismdevelopment is not a linear process.Cohen'sThe implied suggestionoflatest work is that tourist destinati"ons attract certainstyles of tourists according to the type of en ironments created.Thus to some extent they may give shape to their own destiny.2.2Host PerceptionsSimilar studies to those discussed above have ks have emerged which appear to be widelymadetour is ts.applicableofTwotosocial impact research.Doxey(1976) has suggested a framework according to varyingHe argues that the level of ir-degrees of resident irritation.ritationarisingfromcontactsbetween the hosts and touristswill be determined by the mutual compatibility of each,assumptionthat with seemingly compatible groups,may ultimately generate tensions.sheer numbersDestination areas will there-fore successively pass through five stages of irritation.*Euphoria- hosts enthusiastic and thrilled bytourist development*Apathy- tourists seen as a source of profit,individuality is lost20with the

*residents voice misgivings about theAnnoyancetourist industry while policy makerssee solutions in increasing infrastructure.*Antagonism -irritations become transferred to tourists.through speech and behaviour:.*- residents learn to live wLth the factThe finalleveltheir lifestyles and environment areirreversibly changed.WhileDoxeyargueschanges through time,thethatresidentresponsepredictablythe value system of the destination isbase of his framework.atThus any attempts to measure socialimpacts must firstly be community based.In contrast with Doxey's work, which describes the dominant,prevailing attitude at a community level Butler(1974)[drawingon Bjorklund and Philbricks (1972) work on cultural interactionJ;clarify differing attitudes among individuals.Hesuggests residents might be classified on the basis of theirat-attemptstotitudesandbehaviour,according to their disposition for,against,further tourism development.(Arrows lndicala posslblily of chnnoe)Ac ion and supportof tourist activityFAVOURABLE:Slight acceptance ofand support fortourist activity50 "'.i::."'CJOi,/'"O .,2:.jQUNFAVOURABLE:Aggressiveopposition totourist activityUNFAVOURABLE:Silent acceptancebul opposition totourist activityz"'Fig. 9 llo t at1i1udi11al/bd1avioural re pnmr. lo touri.r activity (Sauret: After fljorkhind and Philbrick 1972: B. Found in Butler 1974: 12)}). Ior:

Butler's framework has the advantage that. it recognises thatdifferent attitudeswithinthesamemaybecommu1ii ty,heldtowardtourismat one time.development,This suggestion hasfound support in more recent research work (Brougham1981).andButler:Pizam (1978).and Thomason et nl (1979) developed attitudeindices on a range of issues relating to tour:ism development, andrecordedamorefavourableassessment from entrepreneurs con-nected with tourist activity comparedReactions, seems are also likely to vary according to the na-ture of the issue.theywithIf community attitudes are widelydiffereritlikely to lead to tensions and political pressures be-tween different resident groups,Mathieson and Wallalthoughitlssuggestedby(1982:139) that the majority of the populationwill accept or react passively to tourism.ThusButler'sdynamic interplay of attitude and behaviour,combined with Doxey's more general community analysis,thereinforcesuggestions in this paper of the need to provide a communitycommunication system wh

The sec o n d ma j u r f o cu :3 i s o n fa c lo r s th a t co 11 ti: i but e t o socio-cultural impacts. A central theme here is that impact ·studies merely assist us in deter:minin· how well we ar:e rneetin :J oUJ: objectives. It is also argued that because the tourism